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HARVARD UNIVERSITY 



FRANCES LOEB LIBRARY 
GRADUATE SCHOOL OF DESIGN 



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PRACTICAL DRAWING 



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PRACTICAL DRAWING 

A BOOK FOR 
THE STUDENT AND THE GENERAL READER 



E. g: LUTZ 



WITH EXPLANATORY ILLUSTRATIONS BY THE AUTHOR 



NEW YORK 

CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS 

191 5 



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SCHOOL OF 

UNOSCAPE ARCHITECTURE 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY 



FubUibed Scptembo, 1915 



1138 



t:oo;,lc 



CONTENTS 

I. Beginning to Draw 3 

11. Proportions of the Human Figure and 

Drawing without Models 29 

III. Charcoal and Crayon Drawing ... 49 

IV. Water-Color Painting 63 

'■^ V. Pen-and-Ink Drawing 75 

VI. Helpful Geometry 103 

. VII. Perspective Made Clear 125 

VIII. Pictorial (Composition 157 

^ IX. On Lettering' 171 

X. Drapery and Hints on Costume De- 
signing ■ . . 195 

XI. Concerning Materials for, and Other 

Matters about, Drawing 213 



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BEGINNING TO DRAW 



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BEGINNING TO DRAW 

TO draw from the flat copy is not difficult; but 
few beginners Bnd it an easy task to make a 
sketch from solid or real objects. The usual way 
in elementary art instruction is to furnish the pupil 
with an outline of something to be copied. Now, 
leaving aside the question whether this is, or is not, 
the right way of teaching the rudiments of drawing, 
it seems true that, for most of us, imitating by 
drawing from a copy — that is, another's rendering 
of something in the visible world — is easier than 
making one's own interpretation of actuality. The 
accomplished master or native genius, of course, 
would And it irksome if compelled to copy another's 
work. 

But should drawing from the actual objects be 
so hard ? Wouldn't it be just as simple as working 
from the flat if the student could let himself believe 
that the visual rays from all the points of the object, 
or the view, were brought forward to a supposed 
plane directly in front of him ? This plane with the 
object or view thus ideally outlined he would need 



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4 PRACTICAL DRAWING 

merely to consider as a huge flat copy to be faithfully 
imitated. 

Many mechanical aids to drawing have been con- 
trived. Of these the camera lucida and the camera 
obscura, both requiring the interposition of either a 
lens or a prism, are to be regarded more in the nature 
of optical instruments than as apparatus for aiding 
or lightening the work of graphic delineation. 

A favorite example cited in elucidating the princi- 
ples of perspective is that of the window-pane on 
which is traced a view of the street or buildings 
outdoors. This pane of glass would correspond to 
the hypothetical plane just spoken of. Somewhat 
on this order is the machine mentioned by Albrecht 
Diirer in his book on the art of measuring. It con- 
sisted of a transparent surface placed between the 
subject and a single eye-piece fixed in such a posi- 
tion that the artist could look through the opening 
and trace on the plane the outHnes of the subject. 
This gave him a one-eyed view, so to speak, of the 
model. Other inventions of a similar nature have 
been made, some using a transparent gauze that 
could be easily marked with a pencil. It would 
appear by the bowl on the table of the apparatus 
in Diirer's engraving, that he used a liquid and 
painted the image on the transparent surface. This 
invention is perhaps more to be considered as a 
curiosity than as a practical affair. 



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BEGINNING TO DRAW 



5 



The suggestion offered here of regarding the ob- 
ject or view as nothing but an ideal, or supposedly 
flat picture on an imaginary plane, to be faith- 
fully transcribed on paper, seems at variance with 
the ideas of the realists who shudder at the notion 
of so looking on the perceptible world. But for 




ApparaiuA fop dra.wing invcnied by Durer 



beginners there is a practical utility in considering 
everything we see as nothing more than an ag- 
gregation of areas, outlined and variously hued 
and shaded. The author is well aware of the im- 
portance of rendering on paper, or canvas — as the 
case may be — the effects of roundness, bulk, and 
dimensions; but he wishes to emphasize the signifi- 
cance of beginning the study of drawing by the 
simplest methods. This he believes to be the rep- 
resentation of things by making the first strokes 



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6 PRACTICAL DRAWING 

on the paper in lines or forms more or less geometric 
in aspect, rather than attempting to sketch at first 
the elusive bends of curves or the subtility of con- 
tours; and that furthermore, in the beginning it 
would be better to work with simple straight lines; 
and when attempting to shade round forms, with 
their finely graded tones, hard to perceive, to en- 



An uncertain v/ay of meaauring 

deavor to get the effect by a graduated series of 
flat tints. 

It may be asserted that this does not represent 
the form correctly. Perhaps, but it is more likely 
to approximate the truth than a drawing that is the 
result of trying to copy the exact blendings of the 
tints and shadows at the first essay. 

Of especial value is simplification when one comes 
to deal with curves. Rare is the draftsman who 
can successfully get the curves of the human figure 
without doing more or less blocking out with straight 
lines. 

"But just how do I begin?" is the first thought 



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BEGINNING TO DRAW 7 

that enters a student's mind, when with paper, 
drawing-board, and charcoal, he presents himself 
before a subject ready for work. 

There are many methods in the making of draw- 
ings; but there is but one way of starting, and that 
is, to start "big" and to start quickly. 

To begin at one point, say the eye, and gradually 
build the drawing around that in a finicky, tickling, 
small way, is not the right method. Nor, as has 
been advised, to begin at the upper left-hand cor- 
ner and gradually work downward, and to the right, 
so as not to smudge the work. 

Perhaps the best thing in answer to the query as 
to how to begin is to give specific examples show- 
ing and explaining the progressive steps as we go 
along. 

Say that you are going to draw the cast of a head 
(see diagram in this chapter). Place it directly 
before you in a light that will keep the shadows as 
much as possible in large masses, and the side in 
Ught not too much broken up with spots or shadows. 
This trying to get a pleasing distribution of light 
and shade on the cast is part of the business of learn- 
ing to draw. The doing of it will impress on your 
mind the importance of getting a good light-and- 
shade effect. Of course, you will remember that in 
trying to get a good distribution of light and shade, 
the half-tints must be considered. They are needed 



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8 PRACTICAL DRAWING 

in order to bring out the forms. Now place yourself 
distant from the cast a little more than three times 
its greatest dimension — breadth or height, which- 
ever is greater. Never get nearer. 
As to starting quickly: Without delay mark 







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CHARACTER OF OUTLINE. 

B', FnnSiling'iiid v.cilSltog lint JSTcI connwr d™^tfJl. * '"""*■ 

C. Wok ud indefinite ttn^M. Driwtng likely lo be ibKlnlely chuicletleu. 

something on your paper. This does not mean to 
blunder in hastily without thought. It is presumed 
that you have studied the cast first for a few minutes 
by mentally analyzing it, and seeing what it is that 
gives it its particular character; that is to say, what 
differentiates it from other casts. 

To continue: Get something of the plan or the 
contour of the subject as soon as possible for a basis 



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BEGINNING TO DRAW 9 

on which to begin to criticise. The faculty of being 
a good critic of your own drawing, whether you 
work in a classroom or your own studio, is one of 
the most important matters connected with the 
study of art. 



METHODS OF BEGINNING THE SHADING. 

D. Anevcn toae put Da Gril, nearly thit of the halF-Iinl. Try towork tldiway; ud 

E' Shadini reducnl to in AKgregatiDn of flit mreai of tint! from the dirkeit to the 

liglitcst. A good w%y to vdtIc if not overdone or carried too far. 
F. Trying id get the ciact effect of roundneii with the tint Krolici of the pencil or 

Think "big" and your drawing will have that 
quality of bigness necessary for a complete work of 
art. The habit of working on one little part of a 
drawing and finishing that first, and then going on 
to another part is not hkely to inculcate any apti- 
tude for doing things expressing unity, agreement. 



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lo PRACTICAL DRAWING 

and harmony — all qualities which are essentially 
present in any composition to which the term "big- 
ness" can be applied. 

Hints on Drawing the Cast of a Head 
(see diagrams) 

Sketch in the outline of the general mass of the 
head, in lightly drawn lines, simple and straight, 
rather than curved ones. 

As it is not possible to make this whole contour 
in one single operation, it is important to know which 
of the lines forming it should be the first to be put 
down on the paper. 

Now, the first line to draw is the longest, the most 
characteristic or prominent one. In all cases it 
should be the one that you think fits the above re- 
quirements. If you have made a mistake, you will 
find it out during the making of the drawing. This 
self-discovery will be of more educational value to 
you than if some one had told you of it. 

The next line is that of secondary importance, 
following on to the third and then the fourth, and 
so on until the general contour is suggested. Keep 
the idea in mind that the lines are only suggested, 
drawing them lightly so that they can be erased and 
changed without difficulty. 

When lines are vertical or horizontal it is easy 



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DRAWING A CAST. 

:;OHTIIUCTITI WOU OBLT. 



Mark with iJDei it up and botlom intended kize of drtinng, thai importjuit linet 
I and 1 uiiidiutc vidtb a( the driniog. Compkuwiih linei j tati. 

Divide tbe beighl equilly by line 7. Note that the bottom of tbe dun, line S. Ii 
exactly in ttie middle of the lover sectjoa. 

Tlie ttmie of the noiie, line 9. ig • trifle below the coitre. The hrtiwt, mirked by 
to place ai they ere at the lame digunn from the bate o[ the 



Getting tfae featuret "even" depeo 
Noir indicate the featureg io amj 

Wth quieklr drawn oblique liDei, 1 
theie ii eaoegh as your paper 11 



erddineatioaolEine 



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12 PRACTICAL DRAWING 

enough to judge them; but when they slant It is an 
entirely difFerent matter. The way to estimate the 
degree of the slant in any obUque line is to compare 
it with a hne that can be readily judged; i. e.y a ver- 
tical or a horizontal one. As it is plainly apparent 
that a plumb-Une is the simplest thing to use as an 
example of a vertical Hne, so it seems only natural 
to use one in testing degrees of incHnation of oblique 
lines. 

The great danger of a too frequent application 
of such a mechanical aid as the plumb-Une is that 
its use may become a habit. It is so easy to hold 
up one to see how a particular line slants that a 
slothful practice may be formed of not depending 
upon yourself. Use a plumb-line if you wish, but 
remember that, sooner or later, your unaided eyes 
must be relied upon in judging slanting lines. 

Sometimes it helps a little to hold up the pencil 
horizontally at arm's length — if you can hold it 
actually horizontal — and note the angle that the 
sloping lines make with the straight edge of the 
pencil. Or perhaps hold the pencil out and move it 
between your eye and the model as if tracing the 
direction of the line in the air. Getting the feeling 
of the line, this might be called. It will help in 
understanding the cast to make occasionally such 
invisible drawings in the air. It may look odd to a 
spectator to see you make mysterious gestures in 



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BEGINNING TO DRAW 13 

space, but what of it f The practice serves its pur- 
pose of giving you a better notion of the subject 
and making the pictorial rendering easier. 

Drawing from Life 
(see diagrams) 

The usual pose of the life class model is a standing 
one in an easy attitude, the arms hanging by the 
sides or maybe one bent with the hand resting on 
the hip. Well and good; for the principles of draw- 
. ing can best be imparted and grasped by the study 
of these simple standing poses. Many students 
are imparient and ill-content with such poses, and 
are constantly agitating to have the model placed 
in some "fancy" pose or one that can be utilized 
in a composition or some work that they have in ' 
mind. But one can never get enough of studying 
the simple standing poses to emphasize the im- 
portance of two things in drawing — first, movement, 
and second, getting the figure standing with the 
feet well placed on the floor. 

Before starting a sketch from life, mark a line at 
the top and one at the bottom of the paper to show 
the limits within which you intend to keep the 
figure. Always do this. A trifling matter, it may 
seem, but it is best to train yourself to keep the size 
of the figure as you have determined on at the start. 



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14 PRACTICAL DRAWING 

Then, when in pictorial compositions the demands 
of perspective require that a figure Be of a certain 
size, the doing of it will be much easier. If between 
the marks limiting the size of the figure any correc- 
tion is needed, make it within the space marked. 
For instance, if you find that the legs are too short, 
do not lengthen your drawing, but make the body 
shorter. 

Getting the proportions and making measure- 
ments are perplexing matters. Some advocate first 
marking off the classical or ideal height and con- 
structing a figure to fit that. This may do when 
drawing a figure for some practical work. Others 
begin by first finding out the number of heads (7 or - 
f%, as the case may be) that the model before 
them exhibits. They do this by arm-length meas- 
uring. It is done somewhat after this fashion: A 
pencil is held in the hand so that the thumb is free 
to move along its edge, the arm extended and the 
pencil held between the eye and the model. Now 
the two visual rays from the extremities of a length 
in question are measured on the pencil by seeing 
where they cut points on it — one point at the end of 
the pencil and the other along its edge which is fixed 
by placing the thumb there. This length is com- 
pared to some other similarly ascertained length. 
So that this way of going about it is in taking the 
size of the head, relatively, on the pencil and SmA.~ 



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STARTING A UFE CLASS DRAWING. 
Fvmuawtu, Covnsucnoif Ohlt. 
- Muk top ftod bottom of fiwrc ubd a line htU-wir bctwees. 
. Draw line of aciioil of Ih( 



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4- Draw 4 pcrpeodifnilv line cuttioK thiv-D^ --.~* ^.^ -»-- * -'^-- *~~^- 

5. Muk the poiiliai and ilope o[ die ihouUIeri. The centie d tliii Ime (held of 

6. Sketch the head, BC - 



io''r™=1SSfm 






t, ud KC thit the fifute 



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l6 PRACTICAL DRAWING 

ing out how many times, arithmetically, it goes into 
the whole height of the figure. 

In working this way, remember that it is ab- 
solutely necessary that the arm be extended the 
same length every time, and the pencil held exactly 
vertical. Again you must not move but hold your- 
self in the same position so that the eye is each time 
at the same level and at the same distance from the 
model. If it were possible to keep the head fixed 
like an automaton, the arms moving mechanically 
and the pencil in the same picture plane, or no 
change in its distance from the eye, this would be 
an excellent way of working. 

But isn't it rather mechanical f 

If the student wishes, he may try this pencil 
measuring. He will discover very soon, however, 
that after all the eye will be the best judge. How 
often will he find after a lot of careful "surveying" 
that his drawing doesn't look right anyway ! 

Learn to depend on your own eyes. 

The best way of seeing what is wrong with your 
drawing is to step back from it a pace or two from 
time to time, letting critical glances go from the 
subject to the drawing and from the drawing to 
the subject. You will then see enough faults — so 
many, probably, that you will not know where to 
begin making the corrections. 

Another good way in cast drawing, if it can be 



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BEGINNING TO DRAW 17 

arranged, is to place the drawing alongside of the 
subject and view the two from a distance or from 
the place where you are working. 

To continue with the suggestions for drawing 
from life : After marking lines at the top and bottom 
for the height of the figure, make another line ex- 




actly in the middle of this space. Then on the model 
see where the half-way point comes. This is often 
at the widest part of the hips. Indicate here with a 
line the axis of this widest part. Slant it the way 
you think it goes. 

Before going on with the next stage of the draw- 
ing (i. e., indicating the direction of the limbs and 
the movement in general of the whole figure) it 
would be well to give a few minutes' attention to the 
question of equilibrium. 

The centre of equilibrium of a figure at rest, -mth- 



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i8 PRACTICAL DRAWING 

out leaning against or holding on to anything, is a 
perpendicular line cutting through the middle of 
the neck, and below near the floor, through the 
ankle of the supporting leg. At the neck, viewed 
from the front, this line begins at the top of the 
sternum or fcreast-bone, and at the ankle — of the 
supporting leg — cuts through the mass of the ankle 
bones. 

When the figure leans against anything, is in 
action, or is falling, the line from the head of the 
sternum to the ankle is not perpendicular. A little 
experimenting in drawing a few single-line action 
figures will make this clear. 

Since you now understand that a figure in an 
ordinary standing pose with the weight on one leg 
has these two pwints — in the neck and ankle — ex- 
actly at the ends of a vertical line, you should be- 
gin to observe that the swing, movement, or action 
(three terms used rather indiscriminately by artists) 
takes place between the two points. The poise of 
the head, to be sure, has an important share in this 
movement. The way it is held must be noted and 
drawn as part of the action. 

You go on with the drawing, now, by sketching 
in the line of action of the supporting leg. It is not 
to be drawn as if following precisely the direction 
of the bones, nor will marking it as going through 
the exact centre of the fleshy mass always indicate it. 



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BEGINNING TO DRAW 




effected hy throi 
bodr UDcqually t 



No, you must draw it as you feel it to be. And 
this knowledge will only be grasped and felt by 
thinking of the line as part of the movement of the 
whole figure. 

In the same way, when drawing the line for the 
other leg, or any line for that matter, it must always 
be as you feel it should be. It is a question too 
enigmatical, too argumentative, for any one person 



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lo PRACTICAL DRAWING 

to insist on your seeing it his way. You must see, 
understand, and grasp the idea for yourself. If 
you have not succeeded here and have made a 
mistake, the result — poor drawing in the finished 
work — ^wili betray it. 

Remember this when drawing the figure: The 
chest and pelvic regions are two box-like forms; 
nearly fixed and unchanging on account of their 
bony structures. All movement that takes place 
in the torso is due to the flexible mass that con- 
nects them. When an arm moves, of course the 
muscles of the shoulder alter or modify somewhat 
this box outline. 

And the folds of muscles of the thigh and those 
running to it vary the outHne there a little in certain 
movements. 

But remember these box-like forms. 

When drawing from life it is a good plan to put 
yourself in the same pose as the mode!; that is to 
say, imitate, as well as you can, the action, the 
disposition of the limbs and the poise of the head. 
This mimicry — it will only be that sometimes, as 
you will find that different persons have diiFerent 
ways of carrying themselves, and you can perhaps 
only approximate the pose of the model — will give 
you a better understanding of the pose and im- 
press itself on you mentally and further the work 
of picturing it. 



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BEGINNING TO DRAW 21 

Note how, when the hips slant one way, the shoul- 
ders, to counterbalance it, incUne the other way; 
and the head, again to preserve the balance, tilts 
away from the falling shoulder. This applies to 
the greater part of poses. Sometimes, though, 
models deviate from the general. 

Another Way of Starting a Life Class Drawing 
(see diagrams) 

Mark, as before, top and bottom lines to show 
intended size of the drawing. Encompass with 
your eye the whole figure at once. Look on it, 
mentally, as an area with nothing more than a 
geometric outline. Try to copy this as you would 
a simple plane form, employing only direct straight 
tines. Do not regard the minute curves of the form 
now. Then without delay, and as rapidly as you 
can, put in the mass of shadow. Follow the pattern 
of the shadow areas as exactly as possible. Work 
quickly, because there are more important matters 
than exact shapes of shadow masses to be looked 
to first; namely, the pose, action of the figure, and 
the direction of the limbs, especially that of the sup- 
porting leg. After this has been attended to, more 
attention can be given to the patterns of the shadow 
masses. 

This way of drawing, in merely imitating the 



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PRACTICAL DRAWING 



' '■*';^ ' '^^ 



\/ \/ w w 



prinpipil ditk miiiei. it&rx their puttern ■■ prediel]' m pcsdble 
acnl movRncnt. die poiK of theheiKl. how Ktou the nccl, ud 
ie runcins iTom the head to the neck, body, lod throu^ [he 



difFerently sized and shaped areas of dark shades, 
middle tints, and high lights, if carried too far, is 
somewhat like copying the pattern of a rug. It is, 
nevertheless, an excellent way of working if you 
can keep in mind that it is "life" that you are 
drawing. In going about drawing in this way, and 
carrying it to extremes, there is a likelihood of the 
artist becoming nothing but a copyist and looking 
on the subject as merely a collection of variously 



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BEGINNING TO DRAW 23 

formed and tinted patterns, and forgetting the sig- 
niBcation of movement, proportions, and character. 
However, in some unusual poses of the model, 
this way is useful if combined with the first method 
advised, in which the figure is built on a simple 
framework expressive of action, movement, and 
general proportions. 



QO^ 




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METHODS IN DRAWING GRAPHICALLY EXPLAINED. 

(S«pl.««n>p[™ri<:pw>.) 

A. Br iCKlf.thc.indinition of u oblique line [>Ii>rdn> perceive. Compireil with 

mk^Uk n'iluiSb.UnV"'* " i™ *■ " ' «r« '" »"™ " 

Jt. Hie nibdetiei of cnryei ire better diicemed and cUam bf Gni raaghint them 

C. The ihipe of no incomptei plue fom ii «» la pup. In drairuig inylhlDf of 
it, or cu encloK it. Dmh thit firtt. 

. , ... Kmje the ipmce wilh 

your menlil e^ into hall, Chen kc where the point io quution comet in rda- 
tioo to the fatlf-wty point. 

In D (d). linet 1 to c. iDcluiive, mirk placet ud divisooi thuE ireiild be helpful b 
ttaning dut uetch; but the diTinona are nacqual and not determiaed readily. 

Iked, perceived, and obluned, 

((]. Now the pontioot o( the lins t to 5. ioduiive, us qoichly End, to that in^ 
faO- You can go 00 with the tketch. 



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METHODS IN DRAWING GRAPHICALLY EXPLAINED. 



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PROPORTIONS OF THE HUMAN 

FIGURE AND DRAWING 

WITHOUT MODELS 



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PROPORTIONS OF THE HUMAN FIGURE 
AND DRAWING WITHOUT MODELS 

FOR practical work from models, or drawing the 
figure without their use, the artist keeps in 
mind some sort of proportional division of the 
figure for guidance in getting an agreement in his 
drawing. 

The proportional quantities of the artistic scale 
of the human figure are given in "heads," established 
by taking the height of the head as a unit and seeing 
how many times it goes into the whole height of 
the figure. 

Opinions have differed as to the number of heads 
to reckon for the perfectly constructed figure. 
Vitruvlus has given the scale of eight heads; while 
Vasari and Filarete both said that a harmonious 
accord of the human form is attained by building 
it on a scale of nine heads. 

Some old engravings by Aldegrever show figures 
that are drawn nearly ten heads high, actually 



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30 PRACTICAL DRAWING 

outrivalling modem fashion-plates, which are rarely 
drawn to exceed nine heads. 



PROPORTIONS OF THE HUMAN FIGURE. 

The classical proportion of eight heads is the 
scale in general usage; although, in actuality, figures 
are more Hlcely to be seven or seven and one-half 
heads. Figures made in these latter proportions, 



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THE HUMAN FIGURE 31 

in ordinary picturing, look correct; but in idealistic 
compositions and in drawings in which dignity, 
grandeur, or the heroic are to be expressed, the 
classical canon of eight heads is better. 

Very careful measurements for an ideal human 
form have been worked out — widths such as those of 
. the calf, the knee, thigh, neck, and so on; but as a 
rule it is not necessary for drawing that the artist 
should burden his memory with such details. To 
do so is more likely to lead to confusion than to aid. 
Trying to remember and to work by the minor 
measurements may prevent the exercise of good 
judgment and the aesthetic sense. 

Even if what are thought to be accurate measure- 
ments could be taken, the words "approximate" 
and "about" wouM always have to be tagged on 
anyway. For the lack of hard fixed points and the 
flabby nature of the muscle and skin make it impos- 
sible to get dependable points from which to measure. 

It is only essential to remember a few general 
ideas of symmetry, such as: 

Heads 

Entire figure 8 

Head and body 4 

Lower limbs 4 

Leg, top of knee to base of heel %}i 

When the arm is hanging by the side the elbow is on a level 

with the waist, and the tips of the fingers reach to about 

the middle of the thigh. 



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32 



PRACTICAL DRAWING 



The vertical measurements for the female figure 
are usually calculated as above; the proportions 
across varying — generally smaller, excepting the 
hips. Here the width is iK or, perhaps, 2 heads. 

According to an ideal model of human propor- 
tion, the span of a man's extended arms exactly 
equals his height. This is not often found in nature. 
The arms are 




matters as relative thickness of neck and sizes of 
hands or feet depend on the subject, type, or char- 
acter to be depicted. 

Some sort of a relative proportion of head to 
entire figure should be kept in view when the artist 
is drawing without models. When making what 



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THE HUMAN FIGURE 33 

are known as " straight " illustrations, that is, 
pictures in which models are used and the human 
form is represented with as much faithfulness as pos- 
sible to Hfe, the scale of 7^ or 8 heads is employed. 

Proportions of the Female Figure 
In, Actual Life and PictoriaJIy 



In f UhioR platu 

On the other hand, most of the humoristic drafts- 
men and cartoonists make figures proportioned in 
no possible semblance to the normal. 

Drawing figures in action or "out of one's head," 
is done somewhat in this wise: 

Make a single Hne sketch of the action wanted 



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PRACTICAL DRAWING 




PROGRESSIVE STEPS IN FIGURE-DRAWING WITOOUT USlb(G MODELS. 

with just enough drawing to give the character of 
the desired action or movement. Draw an oval- 



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THE HUMAN FIGURE 



35 



Figure Drawing 

. Without the Use of Models 

-The- Framework - 




like contour for the head, keep in mind its relative 
size to the intended figure height, indicate the body, 
and then suggest the general outline of the muscular 
form. This, so to speak, is filling out the skeleton- 
1 ized action figures with flesh. Proceed with the 
drawing by covering the figure with apparel. 



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36 PRACTICAL DRAWING 

You will note in the diagrams explaining the 
method given above, that the body is shown as a 
firm, inflexible torso. It is not always that way. 
You can see in the next engraving a method which 
explains perhaps a little better how to go about 



drawing the figure without models. Allowance is 
made here for the flexibility of that part of the 
torso between the box-like chest and the box-like 
hips. The sketches in the engraving were made with 
the aid of a little manikin about 12 inches high. 
The head, chest, etc., were whittled out of wood 
and joined by pieces of lead wire to represent the 
limbs, neck, and spine. 

It might repay the student to construct one (^. 
these manikins; the mere making of it will perhaps^ 



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THE HUMAN FIGURE 

Classical Profiles 




From alatuapy, peliefs and coins 



impress on the mind the Htheness of the human 
body and the multipHcity of attitudes it can assume. 
It will not be of much use as a lay figure to set up 
and draw; but it may give suggestions in cartoon 
and comic drawings for unusual poses and actions. 
Passing now to the consideration of the face and 
head, these three things should be noted first: 



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PRACTICAL DRAWING 




THE 

THREE 

IMPORTANT 

DIVISIONS 

OF THE 

FACE 



FROP0ItTK»4S OF THE HEAD AND FACE 



The axes of the eyes coincide with the centre of 
the space between the top of the head and the bot- 
tom of the chin. 



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THE HUMAN FIGURE 



SIDE ^ 

VIEW 
CONTOUR 

W/THIN 
A SQUARE 




THE 

THREE 

IMPOBTANl 

DIVISIONS 

OF THE 

FACE 



PROPORTIONS OF THE HEAD AND FACE. 

B 
A square encloses the side view of the head. 

C 
The face is divided equally into three parts: 



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40 



PRACTICAL DRAWING 



(i) From the roots of the hair to the eyebrows. 
(2) From the eyebrows to the base of the nose. 
This division is referred to as the length of the nose, 
and is sometimes used as a unit of measurement. 




(3) From the base of the nose to the bottom of the 
chin. 

The above points, A, B, C, with that imponant 
matter of getting the ears properly placed with re- 
lation to the middle division of the face, are the 
things to be especially remembered in drawing faces. 

Other details are the following: 

If the lower division of the face is divided equally 
into three, the middle of the mouth comes at the 
line of the first division, or one-third down. Note 
this in both front and profile views. 

Looked at from the front, the width of an eye, 



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THE HUMAN FIGURE 




the width between the eyes, and the width of the 
nostrils are all the same. And this measurement, 
considered as a unit, is one-seventh the height of 
the head or about one-fifth its width. 

The position of the ear is best understood by 



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42 PRACTICAL DRAWING 

considering it as viewed in a profile head. It should 
be so placed that a line from the top of the ear to 
the eyebrow or the root of the nose, is parallel to a 



DcvisdicBS Jf»?v ^3gu^tTe-&^clo3ed Profile Mead 




line running from the lower edge of the ear to the 
base of the nose. In other words, the ear is on 
the same level and is the same length as the nose. 
These two parallel lines define the middle division 



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THE HUMAN FIGURE 43 

of the face as noted above. Exceptions to and devia- 
tions from this rule will constantly come under your 
observation, and there will be many, too, that you 
will not see, for the ear is often hidden by the hair. 
Being mindful of the above-mentioned symmet- 

DiyiSIONS OF THB HEAP ft FACE 
TWTCtt PftWXTONS PROPORTIONS VAKYiNq- 




rical relationship of the features will help when draw- 
ing faces, whether from models or without them. 

An effective way when drawing faces without 
actual visages before you is to use in constructing 
them the lines that are used in defining the propor- 
tions. These construction or guide lines, or some of 
them, are of especial help in faces and heads that 
are to be drawn in three-quarter views. 



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PRACTICAL DRAWING 




THREE-QUARTER. VIEW FACES 
ConstrucUon lines that help in drawii^ them. 



Three-quarter view faces are rather hard to draw. 
The American artist, Rembrandt Peale (1778-1860), 
suggests that the features be drawn on an egg — he 
recommends a hard-boiled one — and then using it 
as a model for getting a variety of views by turning 
it around at different angles. 

If you have any ability in the plastic art, it might 



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THE HUMAN FIGURE 45 

be a good plan to model a little head for use as a 
•copy. Such a head would be a great aid if you were 
making a series of illustrations (not using models) 
in which the same character appeared throughout 
the series. 



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CHARCOAL AND CRAYON DRAWING 



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Ill 

CHARCOAL AND CRAYON DRAWING 

WORKING with charcoal, or fusain, on a 
special paper for the purpose, is the generally- 
accepted method for the beginner in drawing when 
he gets down to serious study from casts or life. 
It holds its superiority as a medium for the student 
on account of the ease with which the materials 
can be managed. 

Conte crayon and crayon sauce are also enlisted 
in the service of art instruction. Their use is espe- 
cially recommended in elementary work from casts. 
Four of the principal makes of charcoal paper 
are as follows: 

Lalanne, 
Michallet, 
Ingres, 
Allonge. 

There are other kinds, too, all good. The beginner 
need not be too solicitous about which one he should 
use; when he becomes proficient in handling the 
charcoal and the few requisite tools, his artistic 



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so PRACTICAL DRAWING 

liking will decide for him what particular make is 
best adapted to his way of working. 

The above papers can be used for either charcoal 
or crayon, but are the preference for charcoal. A 
paper with a smoother surface is commonly em- 
ployed for crayon or crayon sauce drawing. 

The side of the paper on which to make the draw- 
ing is ascertained by holding it up to the light. 
When you have it held so that the water-marked 
name reads correctly — that is to say, not back- 
ward — the side that then faces you is the right one 
for drawing. 

Charcoal !s made in various degrees of softness 
and hardness. The soft kind makes the deepest 
black lines, while the hardest grade marks some- 
what grayish Unes. There are a number of makes, 
among them: 

Conte, 

Rouget, 

Berville, 

Russian. 

There is an "ordinary quality" which co;nes in 
bundles of fifty, and which, perhaps, is the best 
kind for the student at the start. Later on he can 
try — and appreciate — the better grades. He will 
then find, too, that particular quality of charcoal 
best suited to his hand and individuality. 

First comes, of course, in starting work, the pre- 



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CHARCOAI, AND CRAYON DRAWING 



SI 



paratory biocking-out of the subject and a sug- 
gestion of the shadow masses. This has been ex- 
plained in the chapter on "beginning to draw." 



Tor Ch&rcoa.! snd Crayon. Drawing 



I r ' Crayon Hdder 



CharcoaJ. 




Polnicd Eraser or Rubber gtmnp 



When the principal shadows have been put in 
roughly by quickly drawn parallel oblique lines, 
they should be smoothed over with the tip of the 
finger or, if you prefer it, a large chamois stump. 
This first shadow mass that you have blocked out 



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52 PRACTICAL DRAWING 

and smoothed over should represent a degree of 
tint between the darkest and the lightest. That 
is, approximately the half-tint, or what you think 
the half-tint to be. 

The whole idea is to have something to start 
with, on which to build your drawing. 

Now you proceed with your work by darkening 
where you think it should be darker and lightening 
the tints where you think they need it. 

Some commence the shading by making with the 
charcoal point sketchy lines with a back-and-forth 
movement of the hand, and then massing this in an 
even tint with their finger-tips, a piece of chamois, 
or a large stump. Others work more deUberately 
in making a series of parallel obHque lines, which 
they smooth over evenly. Then, again, others 
produce tints with charcoal dust. To do this, they 
rub a bit of soft charcoal to powder on a scrap of 
paper or a stumping palette. This latter article can 
very conveniently be held in the left hand while 
working. 

A broad expanse of tone can be obtained by the 
use of a rag. The rag is folded over the ends of two 
fingers, care being taken that it is not wrinkled, 
then used to spread pulverized charcoal in a uniform 
tint over the paper. The rag can also be used in 
lightening a tint that is too dark, or in smoothing 
over and taking out inequalities of a tone. 



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CHARCOAL AND CRAYON DRAWING 



53 



Another method is to cover the whole surface of 
the paper with an even shade of charcoal, then 
going on with the drawing, putting in darker tints 



For Chai^coal and Crayon Drscwing 

P&pei- 5Hiinp 




CtomoisMrtU^ TorfilUna ov Spills,,^ 



and taking out any lighter ones with a piece of 
chamois or kneaded rubber. Some become very 
skilful in this method and handle the materials 
with great facility. It is a good way to work where 
the subject or model is under a strong effect of 



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54 PRACTICAL DRAWING 

artificial light. This way, of cutting out lighter 
tints and high lights from a general tone previously 
spread over the whole paper, results in strong, forcible 
drawings. A practical plan for working this way is 
to indicate the drawing first, then spread the general 
tone over the paper, outlines of the first drawing 
and all. The markings of the preHminary outlines 
will show through the tone just sufficiently to enable 
you to go on with the drawing if you have empha- 
sized them with very hard charcoal. 

A clean piece of chamois is employed in lighten- 
ing tints, and white spots or nearly white tones are 
obtained by the use of a pellet of bread or the 
kneaded rubber. 

Kneaded rubber is especially serviceable and a 
convenient article. For the high Ughts and where 
sharply defined oudines are required the hard- 
pointed rubber is best. This article, however, must 
not be brought into use until well toward the finish- 
ing of the drawing, as much rubbing with it destroys 
the surface of the paper and will cause subsequent 
working with the charcoal or crayon over the rubbed- 
out spots to result in uneven tints. 

Charcoal sticks are pointed by strokes of the 
knife-blade exactly opposite to those employed in 
sharpening a lead pencil; to wit, from the point 
backward. But the most practical way of sharpen- 
ing charcoal is by the use of sandpaper. This comes 



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CHARCOAL AND CRAYON DRAWING 55 

in the form of little blocks consisting of pieces of 
the paper glued together at their edges. You can 
get them in any artist's supply shop. They can also 



Foi* Charcoal and Crayon Drawing 




How io 5pr2iy the fix 
on. the 



Sand Paper Blocks BotUa of Tixatif 



be used in pointing crayons and pencil leads. The 
dust from sharpening charcoal sticks should be 
saved for spreading tints over the paper with rags 
or stumps. 

A large area of charcoal tint or a background 



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56 PRACTICAL DRAWING 

that is too dark can be lightened a little by the use 
of a sponge rubber. The soiled margins of the paper 
can also be cleaned with this rubber. 

The water-mark lines in certain kinds of charcoal 
paper, which are sometimes very evident in finished 
work, are not considered detrimental to a drawing. 
For the crayon, especially when studying from casts, 
a special crayon paper is preferable. This paper has 
not that roughness of surface characteristic of the 
charcoal papers; but is grained uniformly and gives 
smooth, unbroken tones that render successfully 
the transparency of the shadows in a plaster cast. 

Tinted papers — gray and light blue are best — 
both for charcoal and crayon can be used for cer- 
tain subjects. The tint of the paper takes the place 
of the half-tint, and white crayon is used to get still 
lighter tones and the high lights. 

For fine crayon work a special paper mounted on 
muslin is stretched taut on a frame or strainers. 

To prevent finished charcoal and crayon draw- 
ings from getting smudged they must be "fixed." 
To accomplish this, fixative is sprayed on the face of 
the drawing with an atomizer. When the paper has 
been mounted on a frame, the fixative is sometimes 
applied to the back with a fiat brush. The general 
way, though, is that of applying it directly to the 
face of the drawing. 

You can prepare the fixative yourself with shellac 



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CHARCOAL AND CRAYON DRAWING 



57 



and pure alcohol; but care must be taken not to 
get the mixture of a yellowish tinge, or it will dis- 
color th£ drawing. To obviate any such occurrence 



Simple 5iu 




CKur -hinad owr holding 
pjiifolio —paper held 
fast by dips 



you had better get it all prepared from the shop. 
Most of the atomizers are made with the two parts 
of which they are constructed hinged. It is neces- 
sary when using one always to hold the two parts 
bent at the correct angle. But you can get kinds 
made with the tubes fixed at the required angle. 



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58 PRACTICAL DRAWING 

To use the atomizer: Place the small tube into 
the bottle of the fixative and blow into the other — 
the one with the mouthpiece. Now, if you have 
blown with just the right amount of force and the 
tubes have been held at the proper angle, one to the 
other, the result will be a fine spray of the vaporized 
liquid. You must be careful in placing yourself at 
the correct distance from the drawing, which has 
been previously pinned to hang vertically on the 
wall or an upright board. If you get too close to 
the drawing, instead of a fine vapor, drops of fixative 
will gather and run down the surface of the paper. 
Just one little splotch with a track of the trickling 
liquid will, of course, ruin your drawing. This can 
be easily avoided by first getting the right distance 
by trying the operation on the board alongside of 
the drawing. Be sure to clean out the atomizer 
after using, as any fixative left in the small tube, in 
drying, will cause it to become clogged. To prevent 
this blow water through it immediately after using. 

Drawings for reproduction by the photo-engrav- 
ing processes can be made with charcoal or crayon. 
If they are intended for the ordinary line or zinc 
engraving they must not be rubbed over. It is im- 
portant to remember this. The lines or markings 
are not to be smoothed over with the chamois or 
stumps, as the depressions in the roughly grained 
paper must show a clear white. Exactly as in pen- 



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CHARCOAL AND CRAYON DRAWING 59 

and-ink, the requirements are that black marks and 
lines be of an intense black and not of a grayish 
appearance. 

For the half-tone process you need not trouble 
about the blackness of the markings, but see to it 
that you produce, with all the artistic skill at your 
command, a drawing distinguished by good and 
artistic contrasts. Often a drawing started with 
charcoal, if washed in with monochrome, results in 
an effective composition, giving a soft blending of 
shades and pleasing contrasting tones. 

Things Needed in Charcoal and Crayon 

Drawing 
Charcoal. 
Black crayon. 
Crayon sauce, or velours a sauce. Comes in vials or wrapped 

in foil. 
Paper, charcoal and crayon. 
Crayon holders, or piorte-crayons. 
Rags, to spread tints over lai^e areas. 
Chamois leather. 
Stumps, of chamois, large paper ones, and of cork. To smooth 

tints, and carry crayon sauce from the chamois palette to 

the drawing. 
Tortillons, or spills. Small paper stumps for detail, etc. They 

come in bundles of fifty- 
Kneaded rubber, an indispensable article for making changes, 

lightening tints, etc. It can be pushed into a point and used 

to sharpen outlines or details. It has practically taken the 

place of bread which was formerly used in charcoal work. 
Pointed eraser, or rubber stump to take out high lights. 



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6o PRACTICAL DRAWING 

Chamois palene, to hold the crayon sauce. 

Reducing glass or lens. One about two inches in diameter. 
Eicamine your drawing with it from time to time. Values 
not in keeping show out very conspicuously when viewed 
through it. 

White Conte crayon, for High lights when tinted paper is used. 
In workit^ on white paper learn so to manage your material 
that the white paper will represent the high lights- 
Sponge rubber. 

Lithographic, or wax crayon, to get a Jet black. But remember 
it cannot be erased. 

Fixative. An excellent quality comes prepared. But if you wish 
to make it yourself, dissolve dry white shellac in pure alcohol. 

Aromizers. 

Sanguine, or red chalk. Makes very effective sketches, espe- 
cially if the lines are not smoothed over into tints. 

Blocks of sandpaper to sharpen the charcoal or crayons. 

Easels. 

Portfolio. One zo by 26 inches is the exact size for holding the 
sheets of charcoal paper. Instead of a board, a portfolio of 
this size will answer. The paper is fastened at the top by 
wooden or metal spring clips. 



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WATER-COLOR PAINTING 



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IV 
WATER-COLOR PAINTING 

THERE are, whether effected in colors or simply 
in monochrome, two kinds of water-color 
painting; namely: 

(i) Pure water-color, in which the washes are 
kept transparent and unmixed with white; the 
paper left for the high lights and not painted in 
with white. Neither is this pigment combined with 
any other to obtain lighter tints or hues. 

(2) Opaque body-color, in which a certain amount 
of white is mixed with some or all of the paints to 
give them "body" or density. 

Purists and sticklers for formula and tradition 
insist that mixing the pigments with nothing else 
but water and working in clear washes as the only 
true water-color painting. They barely forgive the 
slightest afterthought or correction touched up 
with white or a color blended by white. 

Working in pure transparent washes, however, 
is much the better way when studying from a model 
or in landscape sketching, as it inculcates, if not 



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6+ PRACTICAL DRAWING 

the habit of getting, at least the habit of ttying to 
get, the correct shade or hue in the Brst wash. In 
body-color, one can too easily change or lighten any 
part that has been made darker than it should be. 

The hints in this chapter are chiefly applicable 
to the making of monotint drawings for process 
reproduction. 

For practical work and general illustrating, body- 
color is the method most often used, as it allows 
more freedom and gives plenty of scope to the 
artist's individual way of handling and using pig- 
ment and brushes. 

In distemper, a kind of water-color, the differently 
tinted dry colors are mixed, unless they are them- 
selves very opaque, with a certain proportion of white 
together with water and a size or some adhesive 
vehicle. This is the method employed in scene- 
painting and sometimes interior decorating. It 
was the ancient way of painting easel and panelr 
pictures. 

Now the kind of water-color painting that in- 
terests the illustrator mostly is that of simply mixing 
the colors with some white, or perhaps using the 
pigments just as they come in the tubes, pans, or 
jars, and adding white only where needed or desired 
during the course of making the drawing. This 
method allows for the most part, the same freedom 
of handling as oil painting. The artist can give to 



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WATER-COLOR PAINTING 65 

his brush strokes as great a degree of crispness and 
vigor as he chooses. 

The black pigments universally used in illustrat- 
ing are: 

(i) India or Chinese ink in sticks, the best thing 
to use where clear transparent washes are desired. 




WatcrglAsi with lip) Plain china Iwwl 



The ink must be rubbed up in a little saucer or a 
china slant. One of the latter articles with de- 
pressions or wells to hold the graduated tints is 
serviceable. 

(2) Ivory black. A brownishness of the washes 
is the peculiar property of this pigment. Produces 



1 



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66 PRACTICAL DRAWING 

deep, rich blacks. Some prefer this of all the black 
paints. 

(3) Lampblack. This does not have the sug- 
gestion of brown in the pale washes. It is liked by 
many on account of the facility with which large 
areas of light tints can be washed in, and also be- 
cause a tint, if too dark, can almost be sponged off 
without much harm to the texture of the paper. 

Ivory black and lampblack are both used for 
combining with white in body-color work. Some 
prefer one and some the other. Soluble liquid 
drawing-ink is also employed in wash-drawing. 

There is one point to which the artist working for 
the half-tone process must be attentive; and that 
is to guard against getting his blended tints of white 
and black of a bluish tone. In a drawing made with 
any of the black pigments where the tints are pro- 
duced by mixing with water only, the sequence of 
washes from the Ughtest to the darkest appear to 
the camera's eye the same as they do to ours. That 
is to say, the relationship of the varying tints, one 
to the other, will come out in the engraving pretty 
much as they are in the drawing. But if a white 
pigment is added to the black mixture, the result 
will be a gray of a bluish tone. 

Now, in photography, as is well known, compared 
to the influence of rays from yellow, brown, or red, 
the blue rays have an exaggerated eff'ect on a sensi- 



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WATER-COLOR PAINTING 67 

tized plate, so that a resulting process reproduction 
of a sketch with bluish grays in it does not interpret 
the values correctly. 

This disparity, again, is strongly emphasized in 
that most washes of black are brown in tone, so 

Gb.3 
Tot getiersJ. vrorl 



that, when blue-gray is laid against them, there will be 
altogether different photographic values produced. 
In other words, you will be greatly disappointed in 
seeing that brush strokes that you took such care, 
as you thought, in getting in the right value, have not 
come out as you intended. 

Of course, drawing, composition, and technical 
skill are all required in turning out acceptable illus- 



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68 PRACTICAL DRAWING 

trations for the engraver; but in the matter of 
technique the thing to watch is getting all the grays 
relatively in value and not having several different 
kinds of grays in the same drawing. One way to 
avoid this bluishness of the grays is to add a touch 
of brown with the white and the black. Bistre is 
an excellent medium for this purpose. Sepia or 
Vandyke brown can also be mixed with the gray^ 
to neutralize them. 

These latter pigments can also be used in making 
very pleasing monotint drawings. 



Materials for Monochrome Water-Color 
Painting 



with other pigments. 
[ with the blacks and t 



LampblacL. 
Ivory black. 
Chinese white t 
Process whites, 

in the reproduction. 
India or Chinese ink in sticks. 
Charcoal gray. 
Soluble liquid drawing-ink. 

Vandyke brown. 

China slabs and slants to rub up the sticks of India ink. 

Tinting saucers in sets. Little butter-plates and small bowla 

in ordinary chinaware are likely to answer the purpose of 

containers for tints and mixed pigments. 
Receptacles to hold water. One of glass with lips on the rim 

formed so as to take out the surplus water from the brush. 

An ordinary china bowl can also be used. 



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WATER-COLOR PAINTING 69 

Palette knife. 

Brushes, of red sable with wooden handles and metal ferrules, 
or either red sable or camelVhair in quills. Large wash 
brushes of Siberian or camel's-hair. 
Sponge, to moisten the paper and prepare it For the washes 
after the surface has been slightly impaired by the preliminary 
drawing with the pencil or charcoal. 
Surfaces: The standard water-color papers, such as Whatman's, 
come in three kinds of surfaces. 

(i) Hot-pressed, with a very smooth surface. Can be 
used for pen work, 

(i) Not hot-pressed, medium with a slight grain. 
(3) Not hot-pressed, rough with a coarse grain. 
Illustration boards. Stout cardboard mounted with a medium- 
grained paper. 

Other good water-color surfaces can be made by mounting 
charcoal, tinted, egg-shell, or any ordinary drawing-paper on 
cardboard. 



Hints on Purchasing and the Care of Sable 
AND Camel's-Hair Brushes 

Alt the hairs of a brush should form themselves 
into a mass gradually tapering to a point. To ascer- 
tain this, dip the brush into water (dealers have 
a cup of water at hand for this purpose) and shake 
the brush with a quick downward movement of 
the hand and arm. Note the shape of the brush. 
If there are any straggling hairs, that particular 
brush is not likely to be a good one. Nor should 
there be any hairs longer than, or extending beyond, 
the entire tapering form of the brush. Give the 



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70 



PRACTICAL DRAWING 



brush more than one trial; perhaps you have not 
shaken the water out with the right force the first 
time. 

Every water-color brush worthy to be used for 
the work, when tried as described above, will spring 
into the proper tapering form. 




Camtlls-Haip in QuUl -withWoodcit tUitdlt 



C»mtrj- Hajp in Quill 



5how Cwd Wpiter» Brushes 



Snail Sizes of Rid Sable - foi- Designing »nd IWailS 



JApsntse Brushes in bunboo Handles 



Brushes for Watep-Color 

Sometimes, in spite of your care in buying, a brush 
may have straggling hairs, or these may appear 
after the brush has been used some time. In this 
case, such hairs can be singed off with a lighted 
match while the brush is wet. 

Besides the regular water-color brushes, do not 
be afraid to make trial of the various kinds of 
brushes you see in the shops. You may perhaps 



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WATER-COLOR PAINTING 71 

find in this way brushes exactly suited to your hand. 
Brushes for oil-painting are sometimes available, 
their particular stiffness or springiness may be just 
the thing for certain purposes or touches which you 
wish to get in your work. They must be new and 
never have been used for oil-painting. 

Always clean out brushes after using and see that 
they dry in the tapering form. They are very soon 
ruined by leaving paint, especially white paint, to 
dry in them. Keep special brushes for putting in 
solid blacks with drawing-ink, as this black liquid 
has a way of getting into the base of the brushes 
where the hairs are held by the ferrule. The dried 
ink stays there and causes the hairs to spread out 
and spoil the brush for general wash manipulation. 

Always remember to run a moistened sponge over 
the whole surface of the drawing-paper after sketch- 
ing out the picture and before putting on any water- 
color. This prepares it better for the reception of 
the washes. 

An outline drawing in water-proof ink can be 
turned into a very good copy for half-tone by wash- 
ing flat tints over it in places where your judgment 
tells you that it will add to the artistic efl'ectiveness. 
These tints should be transparent. Good washes of 
this sort are obtained by rubbing up sticks of India 
ink or by either liquid sepia or soluble drawing-ink. 



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PEN-AND-INK DRAWING 



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V 
PEN-AND-INK DRAWING'' 

A PEN-AND-INK drawing is a work executed 
with a pen in black ink on pure white paper 
and intended, primarily, for reproduction by the 
ordinary line or zinc engraving. 

In the early days of photoengraving whenever a 
draftsman made a drawing for that process, he was 
strictly enjoined by the engraver to use nothing 
but smooth white cardboard, and not only to make 
the lines intensely black, but to be most particular 
as to what kind of a pen-line he made. 

This was when the photochemical engraving 
process was in its infancy, but since then there have 
been so many improvements in the craft, and the 
engravers have become so expert, that almost any 
kind of a Hne can be reproduced by them very 
satisfactorily. So in. these days an illustrator need 
not trouble himself very much about the mechanical 
requirements of the process. 

This does not mean, however, that the artist 
should disregard the rule in respect to the intense 
black ink and the use of a good quality of cardboard 



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76 PRACTICAL DRAWING 

or paper. Kind and quality of line should be con- 
sidered, too. 

And so before starting in to work, the student of 
pen-and-ink drawing will find it profitable to give 
some attention to the different sorts of pen lines 
and their distinctive qualities. 

On the following four pages are groupings of the 
various lines used in pen work. This list is not 
offered as a complete or comprehensive enumeration 
of all lines possible in this particular method of pic- 
torial expression. It is merely presented to suggest 
to the draftsman the helpfulness of studying and 
analyzing for himself line technique, and of being 
constantly on the lookout for and trying new ways 
of handling the pen. 

We are impressed in looking over the various 
illustrations in the periodicals by the diversity of 
styles in pen-and-ink rendering there displayed. 
Pictures will be found exemplifying many sorts of 
pen technique from the unembellished outline sketch 
to the highly wrought drawing in which every at- 
tempt is made to show form and color value as well 
as the whole play of light and shade. 

Some of the different methods of technic in this 
branch of art are described in this list of kinds of 
pen drawings. 

(i) Simple outline in which no attempt is made 
to show local color, tints, or light and shade. Some- 



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PEN-ANI>-INK DRAWING 




THIN LINES OF EVEN THICKNESS. 

A. Bands of short vertical lines. 

B. Rows of short curved lines. 

C. Long horizontal lines, broken. 

D. Irregularly wavy lines, nearly the same distances apart. 

E. Short, nervous, quivering lines, adapted for stonework in 

architectural drawings. 

F. Short parallel lines in contrasting groups resembling patch- 

work. Useful in backgrounds or designs. 



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PRACTICAL DRAWING 
H 



VARIOUS KINDS OF LINES. 
Writing-pen strokes. 

Abruptly ending lines. A stub pen used. 
Heavy lines made with a very broad nibbed pen, leaving 

a thin white line between them. 
Coarse pen strokes, irregular as to length and direction. 

A large writing-pen used. 
Wriggling lines, somewhat imitating thumb impressions. 

For decorative designs. Drawn with a round-pointed 

pen and using but little pressure on the pen. 
Imitating woodwork or graining. Try a double-pointed 

pen to get this efFect. 



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PEN-AND-INK DRAWING 



CROSS-HATCHING. 
M. At light angles, 
N. Obliquely. 
O. Crossed three times. 

P. Uneven, a favorite way of some cartoonists of putting in 

shadows or a contrasting tint back of a group of figures. 

Q. Patches of cross-hatching, set one to the other at variously 



R, Series of cross-hatched squares. Like a lot of little checker- 
boards. Difficult to make and get an even tint over a 
large area. 



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PRACTICAL DRAWING 




MISCELLANEOUS. 
S. Grass, a very conventional way of indicating it. 
T. Stipple, the way that lithographers make it — the dots in 

rows of concentric arcs. 
U. Stipple in parallel rows. 
F. Double-pointed pen strokes. 
If. Rapidly drawn lines ending in hooks. Not good in the 

engraving, as during printing the hooks catch ink and 

stay Blled with it. 
X. Thin lines, drawn with a fine pen and afterward retouched 

and strengthened with a coarse pen in places. 



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PEN-AND-INK DRAWING 8i 

times certain lines are made a little heavier to in- 
dicate the shadow side of a form. The lines are 
sketchy, broken here and there, yet intelligent and 
sensitive in feeling. 

(z) Pure outline only, with flat tints in places to 
suggest local color and take away from the monot- 
ony of mere outline. A large mass of solid black 
or a pattern-like background is sometimes worked in. 

(3) Outlines, bold and sketchy, broken in places 
where there are wrinkles and angles. The only 
shading is a general effect, in places, of tinting with 
oblique hnes. These are drawn in a direction natural 
to a right-handed person; that is, slanting from the 
upper right side to the diagonally opposite lower 
corner. This way of shading is the favorite method 
of those who must do quick work for newspapers 
and who must evolve pictures without the use of 
models. Plenty of white spaces are left, and the 
parallel oblique line tints are put in where they 
will give the maximum of effect with the minimum 
of labor. 

(4) Expressive and impressionistic lines. These 
are as few as possible. The artist seems to be most 
sparing with pen strokes and ink; but very liberal 
with leaving areas of pure white paper. The Hnes 
have been quickly drawn, but much thought is 
shown by their forcible interpretative qualities. 
There is never a superfluous line. Drawings of 



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82 PRACTICAL DRAWING 

this kind are best made on thin transparent paper 
laid over a previously worked-out pencil sketch. 
In this way you can see what to leave out and only 
draw the absolutely essential. 

(5) Thin lines, very dainty and drawn with the 
finest pen. More thought given to attaining this 
daintiness than to what is ordinarily called, "draw- 
ing." Meaningless Hnes put in sometimes merely 
to fill spaces. A style characterized by leaving 
large spaces of untouched paper, or it may be marked 
with only a few sketchy lines in big curves— all 
leaving much to the imagination and saving the 
artist a lot of hard work, that is, serious drawing. 
A charming style but if carried to extremes lacking 
all qualities but that of daintiness and a certain 
decorative feeling. Working in this style is some- 
times the refuge of those who cannot draw, 

(6) Impressionistic patchwork of tints. The 
whole work characterized by a series of irregularly 
shaped patterns of tints. Each one of these patches 
is composed of nearly parallel-lined shadings, the 
different patches contrasted and relieved one against 
the other by their strength and the contrary di- 
rections of the lines. Sometimes special pens have 
been used for the lines of diiTerent weights. There 
is hardly any cross-hatching, which is a good point, 
by the way, A drawing in this style always makes 
a good printing plate, is attractive, and engages the 



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PEN-AND-INK DRAWING 83 

attention. But if this patchwork way of "think- 
ing" is carried too far, the result seems more Uke an 
exercise in pen strokes and not, as it should be, a 
sympathetic art work. The drapery rendering of 
figures in this style is apt to be merely a study of 
drapery and not a picture of a clothed human being. 
There is lacking a sympathy for life. At no times 
does the artist lose sight of the fact that he is han- 
dUng a pen. 

(7) Sketchy lines, confidently put in and easy- 
flowing. The lines are drawn quickly and in long 
strokes. In important places, as a face, the lines 
are marked with more deliberation. The whole 
drawing has a finished appearance in spite of the 
sketchiness of the pen work. There is a perceptible 
touch in the boldness and vigor of the technical 
skill which assures one that the artist can draw and 
that he does not work in this manner to conceal 
any bad draftsmanship. Such drawings are generally 
made with a fine but tractable pen point. 

(8) Marked by a grayish quality of nearly all 
the tints over the entire drawing; unless, perhaps, 
a forcible dark spot has been happily placed in a 
contrasting position. There is no cross-hatching, 
to speak of. No hard outlines, nor tints bounded 
by a line. Places where ordinarily a Umiting out- 
Hne would be marked, are left blank. The imagina- 
tion supplies the line. 



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84 PRACTICAL DRAWING 

(9) A style full of power that shows skill and 
ability. The pen handled with perfect freedom. 
Distinctly a pen drawing, yet showing that the 
artist never once thought of the point in his hand 
as a pen point. The general effect only thought of, 
and not the individual lines. The certainty with 
which the masses of lines are drawn and the con- 
fidence exhibited in the delineation show that the 
artist knew exactly what he was about and had a 
mental picture all the time of what he was striving 
for. 

(10) Conventional and matternaf-fact style. All 
the component parts of the composition faithfully 
drawn. An endeavor to represent the full round- 
ness of form and copy all the lights and shades. 
Principal figures usually strongly outlined. No 
broken Hnes. The directions of the pen strokes 
suggested by the forms of the objects, casts of the 
drapery folds, or the way the shadows fall. There 
is much cross-hatching and a proneness to cover 
the entire surface of the picture with pen lines. 

(11) Pen-and-ink etching. A contradictory term, 
but descriptive of the style under consideration, as 
it simulates somewhat the work of the etcher's 
needle. A steady hand is required for this manner 
of drawing, as it must be executed with a very fine 
pen. The pen, too, must be firm and respond to 
every degree of pressure that the artist imparts to 



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PEN-AND-INK DRAWING 85 

it. No definitely fixed character of line prescribed 
for this manner of working. The lines are mostly 
characterized by a zigzaginess and any kind of 
cross-hatching. This pecuUar pen technique if in- 
dulged in by one not gifted is likely to occasion a 
scratchy or mushy mess of lines. The sure hand of 
the matured artist is needed to make a successful 
pen drawing of this sort. 

(12) Decorative and ornamental pen drawings 
made by lines that are not put in carelessly nor by 
slipshod methods. Every line marked with not 
only deliberation, but plain intent. Quality and 
kind of line definitely indicated — clearly shown and 
no attempt to disguise the fact that they are any- 
thing else but lines. Diversity and dissimilarity 
in styles and manners are characteristics of decora- 
tive pen drawings. For the purpose of studying 
this mode of handling the pen, the student can find 
excellent examples among old wood-cuts and copper- 
plate engravings. 

(13) Heavy fines and black blots and white 
spaces. Vigorously drawn with a coarse pen, or 
even in places with a brush. Very little outHning 
with a continuous line. Forms and the drawing 
mainly indicated by the contrasting relationship 
of tints of various strengths. Very heavy dark 
shades drawn in thick lines with a thin white line 
between them. These thin lines appearing as if 



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86 PRACTICAL DRAWING 

painted in over a solid black. In fact, in some 
places, a method of painting in lines with a small 
brush charged with white has most probably been 
employed. 

Materials Needed in Pen-and-Ink Work and 
Directions for Their Use 

Bristol-Boards and Papers. — Bristol-board is 
mostly used for making pen drawings for engraving. 
The white of some cardboards is of a creamy tinge, 
but it is best to use that with as pure a white as it 
is possible to get. A perfectly smooth surface is to 
be preferred in bristol-boards, but another surface 
called "kid finish" can be used at times. Bristol- 
boards come in a number of sizes; the most econom- 
ical way is to get the regular size as handled by 
cardboard dealers or printers' supply men. This 
is 22 by 28 inches. Ordinary cardboards should 
not be used, as they are mainly of a porous texture 
and will cause the ink to spread or give ragged 
lines. The right kind of a surface is necessary, too, 
to stand an occasional scratching out of ink lines. 
Writing paper if smooth makes a good surface on 
which to draw with the pen. Your stationer 
should be able to get you large sheets of it, if the 
art-material dealer cannot supply you. Ask for 
heavy Hnen ledger paper. 



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PEN-AND-INK DRAWING 87 

Penholders. — Almost any sort will do, but it is a 
good plan to have a number of kinds so as to rest the 



Tine SrAving 


tiPaptr rdlcd and pasted 

amiind 


stub 




Double Pointed 


Rubber Handle 


Lettering 


Cork Handle 
Plain Wooden Holder 


Broid Kib Text 


Ciw Quill 


Special Holder foi- this Pen. 


I^eed 


Used fop Text 




QlasA 


Qoose QuiU 


c (,,v:| 



Pens and PeiOiolders 

hand by the variously shaped handles. One way to 
make the grasp of the hand easier and more com- 



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88 PRACTICAL DRAWING 

fortable is to roll and paste strips of paper around 
the socket of the handle. Make this as thick as 
you desire, then if you grasp it before the paper 
and paste are comptetely dry, the roll of paper 
will conform, cushion-like, to the grasp of your 
fingers. 

Pens. — For many years Gillott's pens, Nos. 290 
and 170, have been the favorites with pen artists. 
You will find also other good makes of drawing-pens 
in the art-material shops. The crow-quill is a very 
good pen that fills nearly all the requirements of 
the pen draftsman. It can make the finest hair 
line and has a point that responds to enough pres- 
sure to make a line nearly one-eighth of an inch 
thick. First-class stationers now keep a supply of 
drawing-pens on hand together with many other 
kinds that can be used in Hne drawing. Stub pens, 
for instance, are sometimes very good in coarse 
work; likewise large writing and double-pointed 
pens. When a tine is wanted thicker than any pen 
will make, it is advisable to try a showcard writer's 
brush. This is a sable brush with very long hairs. 
If it is managed with a steady hand, long firm Hnes 
can be made with it. 

Ink. — ^The water-proof variety is the one gen- 
erally employed. Some who like to work in delicate 
thin lines choose the soluble ink. Bourgeois's French 
ink comes in a bottle which is conveniently held in 



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PEN-ANI>-INK DRAWING 89 

the hand. Most workers, to be sure, fix the ink- 
bottle in some sort of a stand that is not easily 
upset; but artists who work on large, easel-tike 
tables with the paper fastened down, work with 
the pen in one hand and hold a bottle of ink in the 
other. It saves a little time in charging the pen 
with ink. If long and thick lines are made, the 
fine drawing-pens hardly hold enough ink for two 
such lines, and reaching over to a table to dip the 
pen in an ink-bottle every two strokes means a 
real loss of time. 

Lead Pencils. — A medium pencil is best to use, 
as the markings of a very soft pencil will soil the 
paper and necessitate so much erasing that the 
surface is somewhat spoiled for pen work. Hard- 
pencil markings are difficult to erase. Some find it 
expedient to first draw their composition on manila 
paper and then transfer it to a sheet of cardboard. 
This is accomplished by rubbing pencil dust on the 
back of the manila paper and then tracing the 
details of the drawing through with a hard pencil 
or a stylus. As pale-blue markings do not photo- 
graph when set up before the photoengraver's 
camera, newspaper pen artists sometimes make 
their preliminary sketching with a blue pencil. It 
is not necessary, in this case, if the blue markings 
are not too heavy, to clean off the drawing with 
the eraser. 



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90 PRACTICAL DRAWING 

Erasers. — A very soft white rubber eraser is the 
best kind to use while making the preparatory 
pencil sketch for a pen drawing. Take care not 
to use an eraser in which the rubber has lost its 
elasticity and is hard and Hfeless, as it will smudge 
the pencil marks. And other rubbers have a way 
of breaking up into particles that stray around the 
board and table, get into the ink, and cause the pen 
to get clogged up. Be sure and have the right kind 
of an eraser on your drawing-tabie. For cleaning 
the drawing at the last, use a sponge rubber; it 
will take off the pencillings and yet not weaken 
the black of the ink. 

Making Corrections. — If the right kind of bristol- 
board has been used, any ink lines not wanted can 
be taken out with an ink-scraper or a sharp-bladed 
penknife. The roughened surface of the scratched 
cardboard can be smoothed over with a bone bur- 
nisher (make one out of an old tooth-brush handle) 
before redrawing with pen and ink. Where a 
change is to be made over a large surface it is better 
to paste over it a piece of linen paper. Use a very 
thin, but not transparent, paper and see that the 
edges do not come at any important part of the 
picture, as any break in the tint or shading is likely 
to show in the engraving. Shaving the back of 
the paper along its edge, so that this edge shows 
hardly any line where it cHngs to the cardboard. 



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PEN-AND-INK DRAWING 91 

will preclude any possibility of a break in an ink 
line or tint drawn over it. If any corrections are 
to be made by painting in white, or to sharpen 
ragged ink lines, be sure and use a pigment that 
will photograph white. Albanine or one of the 
process whites should be employed. 



Further Suggestions in Pen-and-Ink 
Drawing 

Sometimes the effort to get good, firm lines in 
pen work results instead in a series of hard tines. 
Now here the ink-scraper can be used to soften them 
by zigzagging scratches across the ends of the Hnes 
or borders of the tints. This procedure, however, 
is not recommended as an habitual practice, as it 
has a tendency to roughen the paper and Hnes and 
give poor printing lines in the plate. It is only 



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92 PRACTICAL DRAWING 

applicable to bold and vigorous drawings that are 
to be reduced ^r-great deal. 

The term chiaroscuro is generally applied to, or 
used to describe, the picturing of things in blended 
and graduated tints. This is the way of working 
in oil and water-color painting and charcoal draw- 
ing. Although pen drawings can be made that 
nearly render the whole effect of light and shade, 
the art is for the most part to be considered as 
having certain Hmitations. The gifted technician, 
even though he be one of the best, must not expect 
to use his tools and medium in representing every 
subject with the many advantages possible in oil 
or water-color. In this branch of art — pen-and- 
ink — we cannot ordinarily disassociate ourselves 
from the idea of lines, and are compelled to be mind- 
ful of how and what kind of lines we draw. 



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PEN-AND-INK DRAWING 93 

Skies and ciouds, for example, are very hard to 
draw with the pen point. The best we can do, with 
the possible exceptions of very dark and heavy 
clouds, is to make something more or less diagram- 
matic or symbolic. 




When the artist is putting in a sky to fill out the 
background of a "commercial drawing" of a build- 
ing, or he wishes to indicate cloud masses to help 
the composition in a landscape pen drawing, he 
should keep before him the idea of simplicity and 
not attempt to do too much. 

Above all, in drawing clouds in line work, avoid 
cross-hatching. Keeping tints open with Hnes wide 
apart gives a luminous quality to skies. 

Some pen artists who turn out a great quantity 
of drawings and are compelled to do them hurriedly 



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PRACTICAL DRAWING 




have a few stock skies which they rapidly put into 
their drawings. This is not such a serious fault, 
considered from a practical point of view, as it at 
least keeps them from attempting things beyond 
the technical limits of pen work. For in picturing 
skies and clouds by this method, the less you do 
the better. One might add, that the best "render- 
ing" for skies in pen drawing is white paper. 

It is very hard faithfully to portray trees in pen- 
and-ink, and the best thing seems to be to use in- 
terpretative lines that suggest rather than draw the 
foliage. You adopt, for example, some particular 
pen stroke for the foHage of a tree and repeat it 
throughout the entire foUage mass of that tree. 
But in doing this it must be remembered that it 
is nothing more than a conventionality and that 
there is need of varying the strokes. The monotony 
of the regular foliage touch or characteristic can 



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PEN-AND-INK DRAWING 95 - 

be broken by having white spaces where the light 
strikes the masses of leaves and causes a glittering 



that prevents definite outlines from being seen. 
Again in the shadows under foliage sprays and on 
the side away from the light you need only put in 
dark-lined tints without any suggestion of foUage 
detail. 



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PRACTICAL DRAWING 



AflNE PEN AND A COARSE PEN USED. 

•V 

As a rule, when drawing foliage, the direction of 
the lines, whether in pencil or with the pen, should 
be as if they radiated from the central part of the 
tree. Keep thinking how leaves radiate from a 
spray, and the sprays from branches and these 
again from the main trunk. 

Give a great deal of attention to the branches 
that point toward you, and to 'the pointing-toward- 
you leaves on these branches. It is easy enough to 



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PEN-AND-INK DRAWING 97 

v. 
Foliage „ , i"^.\-.rf >;• 




A FINE PEN AND A STUB PEN USED. 

draw the side branches, as they are nearly always 
so clearly silhouetted against a background — 
usually the sky. It only seems natural, after mark- 
ing the general form of the tree and a line for the 



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PRACTICAL DRAWING 



Quaiity of 
lines in. the 
drawirifl 

A NEW 170 PEN VSED. 

:runk, to start in by drawing the side branches, 
•.y so plainly give the character of the tree. 
t might he just as well to draw first those 
les of the tree that point toward you, as they 
irdest to get right and require more thought 
ire. 

foreground trees or shrubs, the leaves that 
jarest to you should be somewhat detailed 



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PEN-AND-INK DRAWING 9 



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HELPFUL GEOMETRY 



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HELPFUL GEOMETRY 

ARTISTS, illustrators, and designers rarely need 
. to be skilled in mechanical drawing nor to 
have any special scholarship as geometricians. A 
knowledge of a few simple problems in plane geome- 
try, however, can often be advantageously turned 
to account in certain classes of their work. 

The sure methods of geometry are much better 
than guesswork in the construction of regular plane 
figures, ellipses, etc., to say nothing of saving both 
time and labor. 

Take, for instance, the dividing of a line into a 
certain number of parts. The hrst diagram of this 
chapter shows how to do this. You will need a 
straight-edge and a triangle. A scale marked off 
into centimetres and millimetres is also available, 
as it is very easy to calculate the divisions with it. 
You can also use a T-square with a shifting head 
adjusted so as to run the parallel obHque lines. It 
is necessary that the edge of the drawing-board be 
absolutely straight in drawing parallel lines with 
the T-square. 



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PRACTICAL DRAWING 



7b Divide aLincinio a 
ceriain. number cf equal 

parfe -Say line A-B into 9p&rfs 



-ff 




At aw angle draw 
B C aa oH on BC 

nine equal parts 




from A draw Ime to C j- to ttiiS line drawn, from, 

at 9tl\ diviiioa-paiallels points on BC will cut 
AB into nine equal parts 



The method, as shown in the diagram on page 
io6, of marking off the radius of a circle on its 
circumference and getting six points on which to 
construct a hexagon, can be used in drawing the 
network of lines for the groundwork of a repeat 
pattern. Make the circle in the middle of the paper 
and Bnd the six equidistant points, then through 
the centre of the circle and the six points draw the 
two sets of parallel lines as shown in the diagram. 
By using the points and lines so obtained and the 
degree of obliquity of these lines, the whole surface 
of the paper can be covered with a foundation on 
which either ornamental or fioral repeat patterns 
can be designed. 



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HELPFUL GEOMETRY 



105 



Frequently a designer wishes to draw a polygon 
with an equal number of sides. It Is an easy matter, 
as we have seen, to construct a polygon of six equal 



MaKing enp EqualSidzd 
Triangle 




Wit^ bascAB as radius describe From.Cdrav 
Arc from A and arc from. B lines to A 

intersecting in. C zmd B 






From A and B Aline from C to 
2(5 centers describe arcS Dwill bisect 
intersecting inC attdP AB in E 



sides, but when it comes to marking an uneven sided 
polygon, there is a difficulty of dividing the circle — 
if a circle is taken as a start — into the required 
number of equal parts. The diagram on page 108 
in this chapter shows how to make a pentagon in- 



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6 PRACTICAL DRAWING 

DrAwJng a Hexagon and 
a Six-Poii\.ied 
Star- 



' of a circl^' 




. des "the 

circumference- iriio 
six, equal pa,rt5- 



Strai^M liaea 

connectiDg poirvjs 
forr\ a. KexagoA.i '' 




^Or.aS above, a. 
six-poin.ted staj* or 
Xexagra.n\. 



scribed within a circle, and then if you wish with 
the same points a pencacle or five-pointed star. 

Any regular polygon can be made by the aid of a 
circle. Divide the diamieter of the circle equally 
into the same number of parts as there are sides to 
the required polygon. Now from the ends of the 
diameter, as centres, describe arcs with radii equal 



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HELPFUL GEOMETRY 



CONSTRUCTING THE GROUNDWORK FOR REPEAT PATTERNS. 

to the diameter, and intersecting at a point outside 
of the circle. Then from this point, where the two 
arcs intersect, draw a Une through the second of 
the divisions on the diameter to and intersecting 
the circumference of the circle. Here from this 
point to the nearest end of the diameter, you now 
have one side of the required polygon. This is the 
most practical method of dividing circles or in- 
scribing within them regular polygons when the 
required number of sides is an odd number tike 7, 
9, or II. It is important to remember that it is al- 
ways the second division on the diameter through 
which the line from the point outside the circle is 
drawn. 

When designers have need of oval or elhptical 
forms or parts of such forms, they will find the way 



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Drawing a Fivc-Pomicd Siar^ 




Draw a circle.; -the 
dieimeter AB arid. 
perpendicular CD 



(D 



Bisect C B irL E 




With center E describe 
arc frota. D to F 



VTrih rajiiu^DF^ descnbe 
arc cutting circle ia G- 
D G will Be Vfe of the 
circuiftferervce. 




Set off DO oii.tl>e 

circumferen.ce and join, 

points by 5trai^t line5 

1o /omv. Pentagon. 



Ox as above for a 

■^ Five-pointed Star 

or Peutacle. 



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JDj^wmg" a. HcguJAr Polygon,- (g) 
,Say a Hepi&gon, 



Draw ai circle and the 
dianvcier AB 




Draw line from C throu^ fleCond 
division oq diameter iuD to circle 
inE 1 




AE will be'^V of dircle .Joining- the seven. 

complete the Kgptagoiv 



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PRACTICAL DRAWING 




@ 



An Oval 
Drav\ni ■with 

the 
Compasses 




Draw & circle, 
and lines 
as above 



Wilh A.B and C as cerdep^ 
describe arcs in the 
order as numbered. 



of making them explained in the two plates in this 
chapter. 

It is a good plan if one needs, say, an oval, to draw 
it first on a piece of stout paper, carefully cut it out 



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HELPFUL GEOMETRY 



o^ L.*'*''''^^? '^° Draw an 

( ^•"""'^ ^\ witK fee help 


I y of a S-lring 
X^^ ^/ and pins 




D 

n \^ 


/foy fo^t/ ike phces £>r fhepins 

BC Major Ajds 
DE Minor Axis 
, Take BA a5 a 


e' 


A ,'' describe an arc 

from D -Where 

it cutsBCit^iveS 

■the two foci d -flie ellipse 

At D and at the 

D two foci, lands. 

C „ place pins -Loop 

^\. 1 a siring around 

^v them — E,eplacc 

^L; r p" «+-n with* 




A --'2. pencil point . and 
,,--' draw Ellipic by 
--"■' mnning pencil around 
E Keep string lau* 



with the shears, and then use the pattern so ob- 
tained to trace the oval with a firm outline on the 
fresh drawing-paper. 



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Approxiznme^ 




I>re,w two 
cirdfS of Ih?- 
3a.Tx\e aize 
touchiM each other 



Draw 
strai^t 

hivei as above, 
culiii^fi circles 




With A B ai 
radiuft describe 
arc from A and arc 
f roiR B cutting 

ia C andD 



CoRixect- 1-2 and 

3-4 by arcs 

Centering 

from D 

andC 



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HELPFUL GEOMETRY 113 

Note that an oval is egg-shaped, having one end 
of a greater or broader curvature than the other. 
Some of its curves can be described (optionally, 



Arch of s. © 
Bridge 

\ Or One. Half o£ an 
— i„ Approxiinaie 
/^ Ellipse. 

Oa a line divided into 
three parts describe 
circles from centeri 
C andD 



-*- 




3 From iixleraeclionE 
draw lines througK C 
and D cutting circles 
iaFandG 



Join. F*and G hy 
arc describei 
from.E 



not necessarily), by the compasses. But the curves 
of an ellipse can never be drawn with compasses. 
Furthermore, an ellipse can be divided, by a line 



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114 PRACTICAL DRAWING 

through the major axis and one through the minor 
axis, into four equal parts; whereas an oval can be 
divided into equal parts bilaterally only; that is, 
by a line through the long axis. 



@ An Ks^Sy Way io Z?j^w 

"' "*i " 

®Draw asraa.Useinjcnde<MiaiIine 



© From 2 aft center 
-describe seniidrcle B 



\ 



Com|Jete spiral by 
semicircles from 
centers 1 and 2 
infireaSii^g radii 
aA required 




Special instruments have been invented to out- 
Hne ellipses; ordinarily, though, an artist can make 
the method do that is shown here of using pins and 
thread. 

The shadow of a circle under certain conditions, 
the section of a cone cut obliquely, and a circle in 



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® 

Consinici an 
equLlaieral -{rian^ 
and extend aides 
as Shown. 




Draiv/ing a Spiral 



Begin 3i 1 draw arc 3-B 
Then aitsfnmSandS.to 
1 again, and do on. 
itvcreajsing radii ^ Kijuired 




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ii6 PRACTICAL DRAWING 

perspective are elliptical in form. Artists can make 
the difficult work of drawing wheels in perspective 
easier by roughly sketching out the size wanted and 
then constructing an ellipse of that size on another 
piece of paper, which when cut out can be used to 
trace a firm and certain outfine of the perspectively 
viewed wheel. 

On account of the facility of construction and 
because fine lines can be made with the pen com- 
passes, a method is illustrated of making an ap- 
proximate ellipse with instruments. A way is also 
shown of drawing a curve resembling the arch of a 
bridge. 

Often in ornamental or industrial work the de- 
signer has need, not only of an accurate, but of a- 
firmly lined scroll or spiral. Two diagrams in this 
chapter make it plain how to construct two such 
forms mechanically with the compasses. 

The next engraving explains the making of a 
tnuch more graceful spiral ornament: namely, the 
Ionic volute. To draw this curve proceed in this 
manner: A line which represents the height of the 
intended volute is divided into eight equal parts. 
In the fifth division, counting down, describe a 
circle. This will be the eye of the volute. Inscribe 
within it a square resting on one corner. Draw its 
diameters and divide each into six equal parts; on 
the points so obtained construct three squares. 



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Drawing, a Voluie^ of A/\, ® 
Ionic Ca.piia.1 




yin,5-tK division draw 
' a. circle with inscpibed 
square^ as showa above 



Draw quadrants 

order numbered 

from the arj^es 

of inscribed 




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n8 PRACTICAL DRAWING 

Number consecutively, as shown in the enlarged 
scale of the eye of the volute, the twelve angles of 
these equidistant squares. Now, these numbered 
angles are used in their sequence to describe quad- 
rants that complete the spiral. Radii are made 

Enlarging by 




A s c 



smaller as required. The sides of the little squares, 
if extended in lightly drawn construction lines, 
mark hmits of quadrants and show where they 
join each other. 

An intricate design or a small sketch can be en- 
larged by ruling it off into a number of small squares 
and then ruhng the larger area with the same number 
of, but larger, squares. The drawing is then copied 



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HELPFUL GEOMETRY 119 

mechanically square by square. Of course, draw- 
ings can be reduced by squares, too. 

This is one technical method in practical art that 
is as old as the pyramids, for it seems to have been 
used by the ancient Egyptians. In almost every col- 
lection of antiquities from the land of the Pharaohs 
there are exhibited one or more sculptor's copies — 
little slabs of stone with pictures, over which are 
ruled squares in scratched lines filled in with a red 
pigment or chalk. 

Sometimes a draftsman wants to enlarge some 
design by this method, the original copy of which 
must not be disfigured with pencil markings. To 
overcome this difficulty, take a sheet of gelatine — 
the kind used by lithographers and etchers — and 
scratch with a steel point a series of squares on it. 
Rub powdered red chalk into the scratched lines and 
then lay the gelatine over the copy. The design 
can now be seen divided into squares by the red 
chalk lines. 

When you send a large drawing to the photo- 
engraver to be reduced to a certain size, you want 
to know sometimes the exact height of the en- 
graving. It is not difficult to ascertain this. Re- 
member the rule that rectangles having a common 
diagonal are in proportion, and draw over the sketch, 
in light pencilling, a diagonal from corner to corner. 
Now hold a ruler along the edge near to the lower 



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PRACTICAL DRAWING 

In Reproducing aDrO-wing 

by Photo e.n.^ra,ving 

To SLScertain. the. exact size of a cut 

r<' .' ' " 




Drawing ABCD is to be reduced to 5 inches 
in width. Kark aliflH line fromAtoD, hold a 
ruler S inches from Aide AC, keep parallel to 
taseAB and move it alonS until end touches 
diagonal line at E . 

EtoF (3>i inches) ifi exact height of cut. 



comer where the diagonal comes, then, keeping the 
ruler parallel with the base and at the required width, 
push it up until the end touches the diagonal line. 
From this point on the diagonal to the base-line will 
measure the height of the engraving. Some seem 
to have trouble in remembering on which side to 



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HELPFUL GEOMETRY I2i 

hold the inch measure; but as stated above, keeping 
in mind the rule in regard to the common diagonal 
will help in avoiding all difficulty. 

When it is not advisable to mark the drawing, 
even faintly, stretching a string across in lieu of a 
pencilled diagonal will answer the purpose very weU. 





/ 




y^ 






/ 




X" 





HeC'tangleS having the same line as A Common. 
dia-Sonal are in proportion. 



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PERSPECTIVE MADE CLEAR 



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VII 

PERSPECTIVE MADE CLEAR 

THE exemplification usually given in the intro- 
ductory chapters of books on perspective is 
that of the window-pane on which the view out- 
doors is traced, or imagined as traced, perspectively. 

No simpler illustration than this can be given to 
make every one understand fully and vividly that 
that is the way the whole external world is per- 
ceived by the eye. 

The primitive artist did not depict things as he 
saw them; but as he palpably knew them. His 
knowledge of what things were, learned through 
sense and tangible apprehension, influenced him in 
his efforts at drawing. We look on his naive de- 
lineations, lacking perspective and light and shade, 
as nothing more than symbols. Perhaps to him, 
chough, they were pictorially very realistic. 

The ancient Egyptians, if the pictures that they 
have left to us can be taken as a criterion, never 
realized that their eye was an optical instrument 
that reflected things perspectively. 

A pond bordered by plants and trees, drawn by an 
Egyptian artist was made as a map with the water 



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126 PRACTICAL DRAWING 

conventionally shown in rows of zigzag lines. The 
bordering trees and plants looked as if they had 
been flattened out and pointed in the four directions 
of the compass. The two figures in the picture 



were drawn totally out of proportion to the rest of 
the composition. To indicate that there were grow- 
ing aquatic plants, lotos blossoms were merely 
placed about. 
All to our eyes very decorative and symbolic, 



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PERSPECTIVE MADE CLEAR 127 

but to the ancient artist a faithful representation, 
perhaps, of the objects and view. 

The human Bgure was drawn in rather a queer 
way by the artists of ancient Egypt. It would be 
something Hke this: the legs and part of the body 
in profile, the shoulders twisted around to a front 
view, then the face in profile and the eye carefully 
outlined as it is seen in a full face view — all showing 
that he did not attempt to portray the figure as 
his eyes reflected it photographically. It would be 
hard to say whether he worked in his quaint way 
through lack of technical skill, disinclination, or 
non-realization of how objects and scenes actually 
looked to his eyes. 

The character of the drawing in the Pompeian 
wall-paintings shows that the artists of those times 
were beginning to notice that if they wanted to 
produce the semblance of reality in picturing solid an- 
gular things they must have certain lines slant, either 
downward or upward. But they did not seem to 
grasp the idea of conforming consistently to fixed van- 
ishing points in the directions of these slanting lines. 

Then, too, the drawings of some modern Oriental 
artists betray in their simplicity ignorance of the 
elements of perspective. They have slanting lines 
to define their buildings and straight-edged solid 
objects; but the respective slanting lines do not 
go to vanishing points. 



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128 PRACTICAL DRAWING 

Now, perspective could be easily comprehended 
if the external world, instead of being thought of 
as solid and material — which fact our tactile and 
mental faculties constantly remind us of — is in 

Ini&gine eve?^ 

on a huge 
Picture Plan 

bejore you 



t 



imagination projected forward and outlined on 
an ideal plane directly before our eyes. Doing 
this, considering the natural object you wish to 
draw as merely traced out on a supposed plane 
before you, is the first lesson in the study of per- 
spective. 

The black-and-white draftsman is interested 
mainly in linear perspective. Curvilinear perspec- 
tive is used in planning cycloramas, and aerial per- 
spective is of interest to the landscape-painter and 
does not bring the question of lines into use, but 
concerns itself with differences of the tints and 



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PERSPECTIVE MADE CLEAR 



129 



colors in a general view as they vary from the fore- 
ground to the distance. The study and considera- 
tion of it help the artist in rendering correctly 
effects of atmosphere, space, and distance. 

P ejf.s pea ^jy e 




Of linear perspective there are two kinds: parallel 
and angular. 

In the simpler of these, parallel, all the horizon- 
tal lines that are at right angles to the central visual 
ray, or the line of vision, are shown parallel; and 
the lines which in nature go in the same direction 
as the line of vision, in a perspective rendering 
recede toward a point on the horizon directly before 
the spectator's eye. 

A familiar example is that of a floor marked off 



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PRACTICAL DRAWING 









■ 


* 


m 




2 






^ 








m 


1 








m 




m 




m 




H 


^ 




i^ 






- 






P 




m 


















m 










^ 




m 




m 






s 











Q| 



A FANCIFUL ANALOGY. 



into square feet with the crosswise lines parallel to 
the horizon. A view of a huge checker-board placed 
on the floor with one edge directly before you would 
do to illustrate it. 



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PERSPECTIVE MADE CLEAR 





m 




m 


• 


m 




■ 


IP' 








^ 






«^ 




m 




= 




^ 




^ 


m 


Q 






^ 










m 




p 




■ 




^ 


m 








M 










m 




= 




m 




H 


^ 








\i 






3 



A FANCIFUL ANALOGY 



Most drawings requiring pictorial projection are 
made in angular perspective. In this method the 
principal object is placed in such a way that some 
corner or angle points toward the observer and the 



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132 



PRACTICAL DRAWING 



lines bounding its edges converge obliquely toward 
vanishing points. 

The best way to make perspective clear is to 
give a particular example and show the way of 
procedure from the beginning and carried through 
to the end. You will find, then, illustrated in these 
pages, seven plates with explanations of a simple 




Tlie Hopizontaj line is always on a Level with the Eye 



problem in angular perspective. It will be advis- 
able, though, that perspective terms Hrst be studied. 



Terms Used in Perspective 

Horizontal Line. — A line on a level with the ob- 
server's eye, not always apparent. Visible in a view 
of the sea or the open flat country. 

Point of Sight. — A point on the horizontal line 
opposite the observer's eye. In parallel perspective 
this is also the vanishing point. It is sometimes 
called the centre of vision, or the centre of the 
picture. 



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PERSPECTIVE MADE CLEAR 



133 



Distance. — The line marked in the drawing as 
running from the point of sight to the station point, 
or observer's eye, and measuring the principal 
distance. It will here be spoken of as the distance 
or the line of distance. This line is at right angles 




to the horizontal line and equal in length to the 
base-Une or the width of the picture. When shorter, 
that is, bringing the observer's eye closer, the result 
will be a rendering of the objects in sharp-angled or 
violent perspective. This Hne is called by some 
the vertical Hne, probably because it is a vertical 
line in the drawing. But this term seems misleading, 



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134 PRACTICAL DRAWING 

as the line represents in actuality an imaginary 
level one; i. e., the line of vision from the observer's 
eye to the centre of vision or the point of sight. 

Station Point. — The position of the observer's 
eye opposite the point of sight, and at a distance 
from it equal to the width of the picture. This 
position of the station point makes the optic angle 
for viewing things a proper one; that is within 
sixty degrees. It will help in working out problems 
in perspective to think of the station point and the 
line of distance as not on the flat surface of the 
paper but jutting out toward you. The station 
point is only placed on the paper to yse in establish- 
ing the positions of vanishing and measuring points. 
If there is no room below on the drawing-board, the 
station point can be placed above the horizontal line. 

Base-Line. — A line parallel to the horizontal line 
and below it at a distance equal to the height of the 
observer's eye. The base of the picture plane and 
the front line of the ground-plan meet at the base- 
line. In working to scale, measurements are marked 
on the base-line. It is sometimes called the ground 
line. 

Picture Plane. — An imaginary plaoe resting on 
the base-line. The horizontal line crosses it at the 
height of the observer's eye. The line distance 
meets it at the point of sight at right angles. The 
picture plane can be Hkened to a transparent screen 



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PERSPECTIVE MADE CLEAR 135 

to which the points of the view are brought forward 
by lines that centre, or focus, at the eye. In pass- 
ing through this screen these lines leave their im- 
press and produce a huge picture of the view. 

Vanishing Point. — A point to which converge — 
in a perspective drawing — lines which in nature are 
parallel to one another. For level Hues the vanish- 
ing points will be found somewhere on the (level) 
horizontal line. Inclined lines have their vanishing 
points either above or below the horizontal line. 

Second Vanishing Point. — If the first vanishing 
point is known, the second can be found by draw- 
ing a line from the Erst vanishing point to the station 
point and from here, at a right angle, another line 
continued to the horizontal line. Where this line 
cuts the horizontal hne marks the position of the 
second vanishing point. Note and remember: in 
picturing right-angled objects, the two lines joining 
the vanishing points by meeting at the station point 
always meet at a right angle. 

Measuring Point. — A point on the horizontal line 
to which a line is drawn from a measurement or a 
scale on the base-Hne. This Hne is called the meas- 
uring Hne. 

A measuring point is obtained by centring the 
compasses at a vanishing point and drawing an 
arc from the station point to, and cutting, the 
horizontal line. The measuring point so obtained 



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136 



PRACTICAL DRAWING 



is used for determining or fixing lengths on lines 
going to its particular vanishing-point. In parallel 
perspective the measuring point and the station 
point are equidistant from the point of sight. 

Measuring Line. — ^A line to the measuring point 
from a measurement on the base-line. Where it 
cuts its respective vanishing line it will determine, 
perspectively, the measurement. 

Vanishing Lines. — Parallel lines that, in a per- 
spective projection, recede and converge to a vanish- 
ing-point. 

Scales and Measurements are marked on the base- 
line. A Vertical Scale can be erected on the base-line. 




Model IIIustrAiing 
p3ij-aJM Perspective- 



Of the two kinds of linear perspective, parallel, 
generally speaking, is the less complicated. Any- 
thing can be presented according to its rules, al- 
though it is not always the most practical way of 
working. But the method is easily explained. 



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PERSPECTIVE MADE CLEAR 



Par&IIel Perspective 


ZxplAined 


: Piciuref PTaJte 


i Pef5. 


Horiienttl line ; , 


1 A 




/ 

J' 


■^^/^'^f 1 1 


\ \ \\\ 


jSasei/ne 


>^ 


5. 






A floor marked off into 

100 sq.ft. (lOxlo) iobe drawn 

in parallel perspective 


t ?^ 


BaseUne. 10 fl. from Station Point ■ 1 "' /^'"" 
Horizontal Line (Observers Eye) 5 'A ft. hi^h ] 
In Parallel Perspeciive tlie Poik*- of i 
5isht is also a Vaniihin^ B.int ^Si^imPKni 



The ground-plan of the subject or group of ob- 
jects is ruled off into a block of squares; and a 
block of the same number of squares is put in parallel 
perspective. Now, square by square, the details of 



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A 


\ 
















A 


w, 


w 


\ 














N^ 


'M. 


Wi 


V 


,J 














'^ 


y 
























« n 


















V 



VERTICAL MEASUREMENTS IN PARALLEL PERSPECTIVE. 

Thetlia^tms sho" The arDund-pLin of 4 bound lU poirdon oa the floor, utd tike floor b 
pcripectivc «ith the box dr4wii La tit pnjper place. 

I. Draw perpendicglmrB to the baK-Lioe — A and B. The rrqairrd height (jji fi.J ia 
procured Innn thetcilcon the buc-linc. niiLed outheperpendiculanand vaiiiih- 
vat lirFi run to the pointi waoted. where the; will nurlt (he required hcighti. 

1. The required height (jK ft.) o[ that edgs of the boi reitiog on line C ii fouDi! and 



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PERSPECTIVE MADE CLEAR 139 

the ground-plan are copied on the perspectively 
projected block of squares. This, however, gives 
you only outlines of things as they appear in a 
ground-plan. To get up-and-down dimensions ver- 
tical measurements are necessary. These in parallel 
perspective are obtained in two ways. 

Now, as the picture plane rests on the base-line, 
sizes marked on either would be the same. So any 
size wanted can be obtained from the scale on the 
base-line, set off on a vertical on the picture plane, 
and carried back; that is, beyond the picture plane — 
by converging lines to the vanishing-point, which 
point in parallel perspective is also the point of 
sight. ' 

The other method is to take measurements from 
the different horizontal lines beyond the base-line. 
For instance, if each of the horizontal divisions of 
the plan represents one foot, that can be divided 
into twelve inches. Then a desired height at any 
point can be established by erecting there a vertical 
line and marking the desired height from the scale 
of inches to be found on the particular horizontal 
line on which it rests. 

Angular perspective is demonstrated by the 
seven plates included in this chapter. They show, 
step by step, how to picture a cube in perspective. 
It will help in working out the problem in first mark- 
ing a floor with the specifications of the problem. 



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Perj^cHvC' i ' 




wi&3ft.tds , . 
with it)fcr<nce b> Ure otoewwia tye 



ANGULAR PERSPECTIVE. 

[Su PUTII OH TBI FdIMWIHC SIVIV P*0I(.) 

A cube with fldia 3 ft- long ii to be dnwD ia Aogulu penpectiTb 

ObKTTCr'i tresiib. high. 

Bue-line 10 fl. oH. 

Width of pktun plue 10 (t. 

One comer nf the cube touchea the biK-ltiK > It. to the left of the oatre. Plan H 
in/ Angle — with reference to the ha kc-ltne — Ihtt you pfuee. 

Mike the lanci in the order et oumbered. 

Forhej 10 jibbRvutiDDi, kg eDgrevinj on pjige 13J- 
loeuid of 1 cube, like la ordiniiy wooden bni and uie iu dimeoinna. A chair, a Uhl 



Aji^iUar Perspective. 




How 

cube loai(S pjvjecttd 
on tJie. ptcfure plajti 



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1+8 PRACTICAL DRAWING 

Two Mistakes Frequently Ma.de. _ 




"lDditional Matters About Perspective 

lirect front view of a circle assumes no change 
rm and can be described with the compasses, 
irhen it takes some other position with reference 
e eye, it has an outUne that cannot be con- 
ted with the ordinary drawing instrument. 
lis case the outline is an ellipse. The way to 



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PERSPECTIVE MADE CLEAR 149 



t 



K 



\ 



i 





DRAWING A CIRCLE IN PERSPECTIVE 

get this elliptical outline is to use a modification of 
the method of copying by squares. The circle is 
enclosed by a square, which is divided, checker- 
board fashion into a number of smaller squares. 
Then a square is put in perspective and filled in 
with the same number of smaller squares. Now the 



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ISO PRACTICAL DRAWING 




DRAWING CURVED WINDOW OPENINGS IN PERSPECTIVE. 

curving line can be copied by noting the points 

where it cuts the Unas that deBne the small squares. 

A similar method is appHcable for curves of 

window openings and doorways. Enclose the plan 



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PERSPECTIVE MADE CLEAR 



151 



of the curve in a right-angled form — square or ob- 
long, whichever kind it suits. Put a like form in 
perspective within which draw whatever diagonals, 
verticals, and vanishing lines will help in fixing 
points that make the copying of the curve easy. 




Determining the size of the picture 



Then rule the enclosing right-angled form with 
corresponding lines and copy the curve as you 
would in copying by squares. 

It is a simple matter to find the centres of rect- 
angles or squares in perspective by drawing the 
diagonals. This is the way to find the middle of an 
end wall of a building so as to draw a vertical line 
to the ridge of the roof. 



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152 



PRACTICAL DRAWING 



The slanting lines, defining the ends of an ordinary 
ridge roof, could be drawn to vanishing points. But 
in most cases these points are beyond the limits of the 




FIXING THE CENTRES OF SQUARES AND RECTANGLES IN PEHSPECFIVE. 

drawing-board, so that it is necessary to draw them 
in some other way. This can be done by first put- 
ting a box in perspective, of the proper size, and then 
with diagonals and centre hnes finding the points to 
which the slanting lines are drawn. 



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PERSPECTIVE MADE CLEAR 



153 



Anything pyramidal in form should be enclosed, 
to render it in perspective, within a skeletonized 
box of lightly drawn lines. 




BY FIRST OONSTRCCnNG SKELETON BOXES, THE PERSPECTIVE UNES 
OF OBLIQUE-ANGLED OBJECTS ARE EASILY DRAWN, 

The centrolinead is an instrument used in draw- 
ing vanishing lines when the drawing-board is too 
small for the vanishing point. It consists of a ruler, 
to one end of which two arms are fastened by an 
adjustable bolt and nut. Two nails are driven into 



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154 



PRACTICAL DRAWING 



the board, one below and one above the horizontal 
line. The three parts of the centrolinead are so 
set that they are like the letter Y — the ruler the 
stem and the arms like the upper parts of the letter. 




When using, the inside edges of the arms are run 
against the two nails and radiating lines procured 
in moving the instrument along. 

The angles at which the arms are set to each 
other, and to the ruler, and the places and distances 
apart of the nails in the board determine the degree 
of divergence of the vanishing lines. 



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PICTORIAL COMPOSITION 



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PICTORIAL COMPOSITION 

THE average drawing made for book or period- 
ical is usually either a mere descriptive illus- 
tration to the text or a character sketch solely put 
in to relieve the monotonous gray type mass. In 
the making of these, the principles of pictorial com- 
position are not always employed. 

This should not be so. It would be better if 
illustrators gave more attention to the ideas under- 
lying artistic pictorial construction. The rules are 
not set and prescribed formulas that are to be fol- 
lowed minutely. In fact, the matter might almost 
be put in this way: An artist decides on a certain 
kind of composition, then tries to see how far he 
can get away from this particular composition with- 
out really losing sight of it as the basic feature of 
his picture. He adheres, in spite of variations and 
modifications, to the general structural arrange- 
ment in his mind at the beginning. 

That every picture should have some point of 
interest is the first rule to remember in art com- 
position. Sometimes this point of interest is rep- 



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158 



PRACTICAL DRAWING 



resented by a spot of light, a note of color, or a 
figure or group in bold and clean-cut silhouette 
against the rest of the differently toned picture. 
Or, again, it may be a face, strong in character or 

ONE THEORY OF PICTORIAL COMPOSITION. 




o built OD [he preceding dl 



expression, properly lighted and set off by contrast- 
ing tones or background. But this is not all; the 
point of interest, whatever it may be, together with 
the other components of the picture, must be so 
arranged that they form a pleasing totaUty. 
Now, exactly why one combination of lines. 



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PICTORIAL COMPOSITION 159 

masses of tints, or spots and areas of colors pleases, 
and another does not, is a difficult question. But 
it is the function of the theory of pictorial com- 
position to answer it by formulating and setting 
forth rules and presenting them In an elucidating 
way so that they will help in producing pleasing 
works of art. 

Seemingly without any special striving, some 
craftsmen create effective and charming things; 
but most of us are obliged diligently to apply our- 
selves until we understand and absorb the rules 
governing good picture-making and the principles of 
beauty in constructing art objects. On examining 
the work of some artist of talent, these qualities are 
seen to be conspicuously in evidence: sincerity, con- 
fidence, skilled technique, and a revealing through- 
out the work of a thorough mastery of tools and 
material. These qualities are all essentially present 
in a good picture, yet they are not dwelt upon, as 
a rule, in a treatise on pictorial composition. 

As generally understood, good composition means 
the grouping of the different parts of a picture in 
a kind of geometrical arrangement of lines and 
spaces. 

The simplest type of the well-composed picture 
is the diagonal or angular. In this an oblique line 
separates the space into two triangular areas, one 
in light and the other dark or in shadow. Now, if 



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i6o PRACTICAL DRAWING 

the dissimilarity between these two contrasting 
areas were exactly marked along the diagonal, the 
result would be something not at all a picture. 
To approach the pictorial, the dark part must be 
broken up with light, and some of the darker shades 
must run over or break into the light space. 



DIAGONAL COMPOSITIONS, 
chingi ia whicb the Ijghti And ihtdowt btve b«D umpljl 



A knowledge of what constitutes good composi- 
tion is best gained by observing, studying, and 
reflecting on the works of the masters. For on at- 
tentively considering good pictures you will notice 
how certain of their components are disposed so 
that they form some kind of a geometrical figure; 
plainly apparent, yet not obtrusively obvious. 

Especially deserving of study in this respect are 
the works of Rembrandt. His paintings and etch- 
ings with their effective handling of light and shade 



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PICTORIAL COMPOSITION 



i6i 



are so many object-lessons. Much may be learned, 
too, from the wonderful canvases of Turner. Turner 
had a gift, showing plainly in his work, of creating 
interesting pictures by building them on certain 



Concentric 
Ellipses 



Turner's 


^ 


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Compositions 


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favorite arrangements of lines. In a work by him, 
the basic idea or design, though clearly apparent, 
excites interest, mystifies and holds the attention 
by the subtle way the composition is diversified 
and varied. 
Some of Turner's paintings betray a fondness for 
' an arrangement that, if epitomized into a diagram. 



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1 62 



PRACTICAL DRAWING 



would exhibit a series of concentric ellipses, the 
central and smallest holding the point of interest. 
This inside ellipse is never in the centre of the area 
of the picture but a little below and either to the 
right or the left of the centre. 




Another diagrammatic representation, again, of 
a type of composition used by him, shows radiating 
lines with the point from which they start a little 
bit away from the centre of the picture space. 

Many of Turner's compositions exemplify the 
important part character and kind of line play in 
carrying out an idea or in helping to explain the 



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PICTORIAL COMPOSITION 



163 



story of the picture. For instance, in a pastoral 
called "Norham Castle," all peaceful and tranquil, 
the lines are straight and most of them vertical — 

The. Si&nifica.nce. of Line sho-wn 
in two of Turnera pictures 

Simple siraight lines 

mostly vertical, 

expressive of 

tranquillity. 

proper to this 

peaceful 

pastoral of 

Norham Castle- 





Short broken line^i 

slanting at 

various angles. 

full of meaning 

in this picture of 

restlessness called, 

The Shipwreck 



a quality of the components all thoroughly adapted 
to this quiet scene. 

As a contrast is a turbulent waterscape, entitled 
"The Shipwreck." In this composition the lines 
are short, broken, and going in different directions, 
all apparently in a confused jumble, but withal a 
definite and forcible design arrangement is evident. 



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i64 PRACTICAL DRAWING 

An excellent way of getting an insight into picture- 
composing is to make miniature sketches in your 
note-book when studying the canvases of the mas- 
ters. Arrange the chiaroscuro in simple broad 
eiFects of white and black and do not trouble about 
the details. Make them in ink, say, with a fountain- 
pen. It will be a good test of simplicity, this minia- 
ture pen sketching. Some works, for instance, that 
are an intricate collection of highly finished costumed 
figures, do not come out well in this sort of a trial. 
You will understand why such works, in spite of 
all the scrupulous care bestowed upon them, cannot 
be considered as great works of art because they 
lack one big thing — simplicity. 

When sketching from nature — pencil, water-color, 
or oil — carry in your kit a little view finder of 
cardboard to help in selecting well-composed bits 
of landscape. It is easily made, consisting of but 
a frame of cardboard with the opening a rectangle 
of the same proportions as the larger rectangular 
shape of your canvas or sketch-book page. The 
cardboard should be of a dark tint, or blackened 
with drawing-ink. 

Hold this little frame between the eye and the 
contemplated view and move it along until it en- 
compasses a section of the landscape to your liking. 
Many unexpected pictorial effects are found by the 
aid of this little contrivance. 



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PRACTICAL DRAWING 



SMALL FRAME OF CARDBOARD-AN AID IN PICTORIAL COMPOSITION. 

The use of this view-finder also enables the sk etcher 
to fix the place of an important item in a landscape: 
namely, the horizon. In a landscape sketch the 
horizon should either be above or below the middle 
of the picture. That is, the particular shape that 
you have decided on for the picture must not be 
divided into two equal parts by the horizon. 

According to some artists, every landscape, to be 
considered as artistically put together, should have 
these three planes, not necessarily obviously, but 
discernibly on analysis, marked: (i) Foreground, 
(2) middle ground, (3) distance. 



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In. Sk etchirvg from Nature. 



''M^ 






Place the, 

horizon, either 

■ above or belovi^ 

the middle 



Try to get 

these 
Thj-ee Pla.ne5 

in. a 
Laruiscape 




3.Distanc£ 



L Foreground 



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ON LETTERING 



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IX 
ON LETTERING 

AS every one learns to write, that is, draw the 
. letters of the alphabet as they appear in the 
ordinary running hand, so every one should leam 
to draw them in the forms that they present on the 
printed page. 

The Roman alphabet, the character of the type 
with which books and periodicals are printed, is the 
basic form of nearly all modern ornamental and 
decorative lettering. Artists, as well as designers 
and draftsmen, should understand the construction 
of these letters and become proBcient in delineating 
them with exactness and artistic nicety. 

For general lettering, or simple marking and 
labelling, an alphabet of characters of a less complex 
form is more suitable than the Roman. For this 
the single-stroke letters as shown in the two plates 
are good ones to study and use. They are very 
easily made, and a knack of "printing out" words 
with a facility almost equal to writing can be ac- 
quired with a little practice. 



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172 PRACTICAL DRAWING 

General Hints for Studying and Practising 
THE Single-Stroke Letters 

(i) To indicate the height of the capital letters, 
lightly rule two parallel lines and exactly half-way 
between them another line to show the size of the 
small letters. These three lines are the guide-lines. 
They should always be made in designing work 
and drafting; but for ordinary labelling or card- 
index lettering, you will no more need them, after 
a little practice, than you do guide-lines in writing. 

(2) Use a stub pen, held in the ordinary way, 
or with the penholder between the first and second 
fingers and the thumb placed against it near the 
insertion of the pen in the socket. 

(3) Keeping the letters broad and full will fix 
a habit of making them distinct and readable. 

(4) Note how the various letters fall into classes 
with similar constructive elements. Many of the 
small letters, for instance, can be formed with a 
circle as a foundation. It is a great help to keep 
this circle idea always in mind. 

(5) In printing out words, keep the letters some- 
what close one to the other; and — which is very im- 
portant — have plenty of space between the dif- 
ferent words. This insures legibility. 

(6) Try, when practising, to make the letters - 
with the simplest possible strokes indicative of that 



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E F H 1 


LT 


M N Y 


Z 


A V W 


X K 


B R P 


D 


O C G S 


U J 


a b c d e 


3 ^ 


o p q s u 


n m 


f i j 1 t 


k r 


V w _y X : 

SINGLE-STROKE LETTERS. 


z €■ 



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174 PRACTICAL DRAWING 

particular letter. An individual style, which means 
adding a little flourish or curve here and there, and 
to which no objection can be made, will develop 
later on when you begin to make a practical use of 
your skill as a letterer. 

(7) The cross-bars of the capitals E, F, and H are 
placed a trifle above the central guide-line. 

The letters of the Roman alphabet are much more 
difficult to draw than the single-stroke letters. It 
would be a distinct advantage, nevertheless, for 
every one who draws to learn how to construct them. 
When you are able to draw the Roman characters, 
even with slight skill, you will have your hand 
trained to execute any style or kind of lettering. 
Examples for copying can be found everywhere. 
The printed characters on the text pages of a book 
or magazine are too small for study, but a glance 
through the advertising pages of a periodical shows 
a great diversity of faces of this particular family of 
type characters. 

Important Things to Note and Remember in 
Drawing the Letters of the Roman Alphabet 

(1) Points on letters like A, M, N, V, and W cut 
through the guide-lines. 

(2) Round letters or curved parts of letters, as 
in O, G, S, and R, go slightly over guide-lines; or, 
better said, are a little bigger than the other letters. 



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Important TTiings to l^membe.r> 
Jn. L,e.itering 




Points as on above ieiiers cuf thrbugh guide line5 
At "tcp and boHoi.carves go slightly owr ^idc lings 




Cios5-barS above middle liae 
Upper parts "f ihcse letters smaller tian lower parts 

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f a b o d e 
p q D 6 

h m n u 

i j 1 f t k 

V w X y z 

ROMAN ALPHABET, SMALL LETTERS. 



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EFlDHq' 

A V W 

M N IJ U 

KXYZ 



B R P S . 

ROMAN ALPHABET, CAPITAL I^TTERS, 



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178 PRACTICAL DRAWING 

(3) Cross-bars in E, F, and H are a trifle above 
the middle. 

(4) Upper portions of B, S, X, and Z are a shade 
smaller than the lower portions. 

(5) In P and R the upper portions are also generally 
smaller; but it is not always necessary to adhere 
to this rule if making them differently helps spacing. 

(6) Always draw guide-Hnes before beginning let- 
tering, one at the top and one at the bottom, and 
one a trifle above the middle to mark where the 
cross-bars come and help in getting the slight dif- 
ferences in sizes between the upper and lower parts 
of certain letters. 

(7) Use, where practical, the spring-bow drawing 
instruments (pencil and pen) in making the curved 
parts of letters. 

In tbe&c letteiS upper parts, usually ii»K middle Ii^c.bu^ 
thib may be changed for variety, of if it- Kelps ApaciQg. 

Now the reason that points of letters and curves 
are drawn slightly over the guide-lines is that they 
would otherwise look too small, and not keep to 
the alignment if they were made the same sizes or 
kept within the limits of the guide-lines. This will 
be clearly understood if you test it by drawing a 



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ON LETTERING 




AMPERSANDS. 

row of letters of a uniform height and among them 
make A's, V's, G's, and O's, keeping the whole 
body of these letters within the guide-lines. You 
will see at once that they appear to be smaller than 
the rest of the letters. To have them look right it is 
necessary to draw them as advised above. 

If E and H are made with the cross-bars exactly 
in the centre they look ungainly and top-heavy. 
Likewise, S, B, and X, if drawn with the top and 
bottom exactly the same size, do not look well. 

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rSo PRACTICAL DRAWING 

Especially is it very essential in the case of S that 
this difference in size between the two parts be 
made. Sometimes artistic letterers, if it pleases 
their fancy, break all the rules of lettering — it seems 
as if they have learned the rules only to transgress 
them — but there is one thing that never looks well 
and that is to have the S drawn top-heavy. 

Spacing, or the placing of the letters in a word 
side by side so that the "intervals between them 
appear, relatively, to be the same, requires a great 
deal of skill. Those endowed with a natural talent 
for decoration do it intuitively and draw a line of 
letters with the same ease that is ordinarily em- 
ployed in writing. But if it happens that you 
haven't this gift naturally you must study until you 
can space letters with facility and — seemingly — with- 
out effort. 

Mechanical draftsmen, usually, in lettering make 
the distances between the characters exactly the 
same. This they do by careful measuring. But it 
is not spacing. No doubt, you have noticed such 
lettering; it has a quaintness all its own and when 
the method is consistently adhered to has a certain 
individual quality. 

The kind of spacing that interests the artist and 
designer is that in which the letters and intervening 
spaces of a word are so disposed that they make a 
hannonious arrangement. This cannot be ac- 



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ON LETTERING 



> LIBERTY 
LIBERTY ^ 

^ LIBERXY 
LI-BERT^ ^ 

LI[i)E 



SPACING. 

L«un ipaccd b Ihat the iie» bccveen Ibe dEfTennc lettert ippor of tl 
Difficuhiei of ipudog obvinted br variety In the fbrmi of Ihe tetteii, 

Sbadoi*!, or linea ftug^ttiiig ihadowa* put id where tpodnf is difficulty cm 



complished by exactly measuring the intervening 
spaces, but only by the exercise of one's artistic and 
decorative feelings. 



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i82 PRACTICAL DRAWING 

Sometimes the forms of certain letters are changed 
or a scroll or a curlycue added to fill in where too 
much white space shows. In words difficult to 
space properly, a Hne or a tint like a cast shadow is 
put in. 



ANMVX 

Mistakei like the above, cin be. avoided 
\y bearing in mind how the Jeticrs are wriiten. 

A N V Z 

As in wriltntf, down, strttkei Kcavy ^^ 



Having the letters S and N going the wrong way 
are two of the commonest faults of which novices 
are guilty. And in certain other letters they put 
the heavy strokes on the wrong side. There is no 
excuse for these mistakes, as examples of the printed 
type are always at hand. Then again these mistakes 
can be avoided by remembering how the letters look 
when written in the Spencerian style of calligraphy. 

A little expedient that helps in lettering, espe- 
cially in spacing,is that of first blocking out the words 
on another piece of paper and marking them from 
that to the place intended for them. For this pur- 



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BCCDPEE 

OGOATtK^ 
Is.LLi7nMMN 

PQRJtrt-RR, 

w_wxy ^z 



VARIATIONS IN Li 



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i84 PRACTICAL DRAWING 

Jin ikinffs are the same 

1/fii is ^vff^/ji Siraiis 
&Tijotj tRe present 

VIVERE EST COGimRE 

Tlu (loise a.n.3 cpoiiis of a city 

Life is ever chan^lnq 



pose the practical worker keeps a number of long, 
narrow strips of paper always at hand. Along the 
edges of these the sentences to be lettered are first 
sketched out and then "ticked" off to the drawing. 
You can see, by pushing the strip along to the right 
or to the left, where the letters and words should 
come. This insures too against the surface of the 
paper being ruined by much pencilling and erasing. 



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ON LETTERING 185 

These narrow strips of paper are also useful in 
drafting and designing to mark off any series of 
measurements from one drawing (the copy) to 
another. 

The designer who, after becoming an adept in 
drawing the Roman characters, wishes to continue 
the subject will not only find it a profitable, but a 

^i) mc(fi 2i)n &((( 

BLACK LETTER. DRAWN WITH A REED PEN. 

pleasing and fascinating, study to go to the original 
sources for his models. As, for instance : old manu- 
scripts, early printing, and especially title-pages of 
old books. 

Old black letters — English, Gothic, or German — 
either from the illuminated or printed pages, abound 
in suggestions for the artistic letterer. Many little 
odd shapes of characters will be noticed. The 
ancient scribe displayed his skill and individuality 
in the fanciful twists, curves, and flourishes that he 
added to the letters. 



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PRACTICAL DRAWING 



qr5tut>u)x 

SMALL CHARACTERS OF A TYPICAL BLACK-LETTER ALPHABET. 

In studying the old black letter, some of its 
peculiarities will no doubt puzzle you. As a help 
in understanding the why and wherefore of these 
peculiarities and the arrangement of thin and heavy 
lines it is a good plan to copy the letters with a pen 
as nearly as possible like that with which they were 

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CAPITALS OF A TYPICAL BLACK-LETTER ALPHABET. 



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I88 PRACTICAL DRAWING 

anciently limned. A real gcrase-quill, cut with a 
broad nib, would be the proper instrument if you 
could get it. But, in default of it, an easily yielding 
stub pen or a broad lettering pen will do. A reed 
pen is a most excellent tool to use in studying the 
black letters. 

Reed pens are used by Arabians and kindred 
people to write their charmingly decorative callig- 
raphy. This pen is made from the hollow stalk of 
a reed growing in Egypt. It is about the size of an 
ordinary penholder, one end cut obliquely, some- 
what pen-Hke, with the point or nib either broad or 
narrow as wanted. Most likely you will not find 
any of these pens at the stationer's, and if the local 
rug repairer or Oriental shopman cannot supply you, 
the best thing is to content yourself with a broad- 
nibbed lettering or engrossing pen. Drawing-ink 
does not flow very readily from the reed pen and 
you will find it better to use ordinary writing-ink. 

Lettering pens are the only ones to employ for 
drawing, or rather writing, the beautiful French 
script, so as to give it its own particular individual 
character. In this case, again, writing-ink had best 
be used so as to insure a free flowing of the ink in 
forming the letters. If the design so made is in- 
tended for reproduction it can be strengthened with 
drawing-ink. 

Here is a way of making lettering sketches where 



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ON LETTERING 189 

fine lines are required, as in script or copper-plate 
printing. Rough out the words on a sheet of heavy 
bristol-board, then, when sketched out, clean ofF all 
pencilling not wanted with a soft rubber and lay 
over the whole surface of the cardboard a thin wash 
of Chinese white. There will be, when this is dry, 
a clean white background with the sketched-out 



tJliotccmot oivuxlfc 



RONDE.OR FRENCH SCRIPT. DRAWN WFTH A LETTERING PEN. 

letters showing underneath just sufficiently to enable 
you to mark them sharp and clear as a finished 
sketch. The wash of white when dried presents a 
slightly gritty surface which allows you to make 
sharp deUcate markings with a hard pencil. 

The epitaphs of old tombstones, with their let- 
ters of antiquated forms, give many a hint to the let- 
ter designer. The student of practical alphabetics 
should not let any opportunity slip of making, if 
permitted, rubbings of curious inscriptions on old 
tombstones or monumental brasses. They are not 



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PRACTICAL DRAWING 



RONDE, OR FRENCH SCRIPT, SMALL LETTERS. 

difficult to make. The generally accepted materials 
are heel-ball, thin but firm-textured paper, and bits 
of wax to fasten the paper in place in case there is 
no one at hand to hold the paper to keep it from 
shifting. Heel-ball is a waxy substance which cob- 
blers use in blackening heels. It can be procured 
at the dealer in shoe findings. However, a large, 
thick black crayon, used in marking parcels, that is 
found at any stationer's, will do quite as well. 

Before beginning the rubbing, place the paper 
over the inscribed lettering and fasten it in posi- 
tion with the wax. Now rub a flat side of the heel- 
bal! (or the crayon) rapidly across the paper so that 
it makes an impression of the letters or design. All 



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RONDE, OR FRENCH SCRIPT, CAPITAL LETTERS. 



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192 PRACTICAL DRAWING 

this, as you see, is like taking an impression from a 
meda! or an ancient coin by rubbing the flat side of 
a pencil lead across a piece of paper placed over the 
coin or medal. 

Things Needed for Lettering 

Besides pencil,' drawing-boards, and papers and 
cardboards of various kinds, one needs: 

T-squares; one with a shifting head is helpful in drawing the 

oblique lines of Italic letters. 
Triangles, or set-squares. 
Spring-bow compasses, both pencil and pen. Use them in 

drawing small round letters or the curved parts of larger 

letters. 
Pens; coarse writing, stub, lettering. Goose-quills and the reed 

Tracing paper. 

Narrow strips of paper to keep on hand, for pieliminatf sketch- 
ing out of words and sentences. 

Drawing or ruling pens to ink in large letters. 

Show-card writer's brushes for lai^e free-hand lettering. 

Black drawing-ink for process designs. 

White paint to sharpen jagged and rough lines or edges in care- 
ful work intended for process reproduction. 

Show-card writer's moist colors foe large designs. 



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DRAPERY AND HINTS ON COSTUME 
DESIGNING 



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igfi PRACTICAL DRAWING 

been developed, and selection is shown by the way 
the artist's personality asserts itself in choosing 
those folds, creases, and furrows that make a suc- 
cessful piece of work. 

The illustrations in this chapter from the en- 
gravings by Diirer and Schongauer, and of the 
statuettes of the mourning monks shown in simple 
outlines, are presented to bring out a certain char- 
acteristic feature of drapery. This is that folds and 
furrows, considered as simple outlines or areas of 
tones, exhibit somewhat triangular or at times 
trapeziform contour?. Again, lines defining dra- 
pery forms are never parallel. Even in a curtain with 
long horizontal ridges and furrows, there wil! be a 
tendency to the triangular, in that the defining hnes 
converge to points of attachment and slightly flare 
out at the lower border of the curtain. 

A semblance to the triangular seems to be the 
most frequent form that folds, take in a simply 
draped piece of material. This pecuharity is well 
exemplified when some stuff is fastened and loosely 
hung between pins; the material will fall into a 
series of festoons that are outlined by the radiations 
that start from the fastening pins. Roughly de- 
scribed, these festoons can be said to be formed of a 
pair of long triangles each. In this illustration 
gravity pulls the material downward, and the two 
pins acting as resisting forces make, as it were. 



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DRAPERY 197 

three forces at work. This produces in some thin 
fabrics very sharply defined triangular forms, but 
in thicker or very heavy textiles a fourth force is 
brought into play, i. e., the stiffness or special 



nature of the threads and filaments of which the 
stuff is woven, which has a marked effect in mod- 
ifying the triangular character of the drapery 
folds. 

It is important that the artist remember this 
triangular feature of drapery; not with the idea of 



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198 PRACTICAL DRAWING 

getting a monotonous repetition of it in every study; 
but to help in seeing and understanding what he 
sees. Compare the manifold forms occurring in the 
different kinds of materials that come under your 
eyes when studying from draped figures. 

In some goods of a pHable texture, the outlines 
and angles will be softened and the three-sided 
forms be nearly lost; whereas a stiff fibre in a coarse 
material causes a number of unexpected breaks at 
places, especially at the angles. 

Laces and some delicate material cannot be suc- 
cessfully depicted by lines, particularly straight 
ones. So it seems that here there is an exception 
to the rule. On looking closely, however, it can be 
seen that the flounces formed by such stuffs are 
defined by what can be called curvihnear triangles. 

Perhaps an example of what you consider a poorly 
worked-out bit of drapery comes under your ob- 
servation. There is something about it that does 
not satisfy your artistic expectations. Very likely 
you are right. A critical examination will perhaps 
show that it is characterized by an entire absence 
of this triangular or trapezium-Uke feature of folds, 
creases, and wrinkles. 

Of course, one must count upon some exceptions 
to this, as well as other, rules. For instance, in 
some subject for a character sketch, say, a needy 
person who has worn the same garments so long 



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that they have become part of him. The material 
as it envelops his form shows very little of the 
triangular in wrinkles and folds. 



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200 PRACTICAL DRAWING 

Now place side by side, for the sake of comparison, 
a fashionably dressed person and a man in rags and 
tatters. Note how the elegant attire of the one has 
rigid creases, precise and formal lines and curves. 
No provision is made for human elbows or knee- 
joints in the tube-like sleeves and trousers, and 
when the Hmbs are bent the occurring creases break 
in a stiff and mechanical way. In the other subject 
the apparel has long since lost its distinctly textile 
character and has gradually moulded itself to the 
figure that it covers, and in sketching from him the 
human form must be considered. But not so in the 
case of the other subject. Here the whole object 
of the tailor apparently has been to conceal the 
outline of the human body, so that sketching any 
one clothed with fresh examples of the sartorial art 
requires just the knack, one might say, of drawing 
drapery well. This accompHshment is attained by 
merely paying attention to the triangular tendency 
in drapery forms. 

This peculiarity, of which we have been speaking, 
holds with respect to statuary as well as pictorial 
delineation. A visit to a collection of plastic art 
will show that we can get hints on the treatment of 
drapery from the sculptor's works. 

And from his way of working, too, we can learn 
what will aid us in drawing the attire of the clothed 
figure. You need to sketch, for instance, a bit of 



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FOUR OF THE STATUETTES OF THE PLEURANTS. OR MOURNING 

MONKS, IN THE DIJON MUSEUM. 

EiemplLfyiii^ the triaopiUr la drapery foldi. 



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PRACTICAL DRAWING 



drapery in action — a floating mantle, something 
fluttering in the wind, or part of a dress of a figure 
in movement. To help in getting these effects use 
a piece of coarsely woven cloth moistened with a 



thin mixture of plaster of Paris and water. This 
you fasten to a board and arrange, while still moist, 
in accordance with the desired effect. Then when 
it has dried and the plaster has set you can sketch 
it with ease. 

Another way, easier and likely to answer every 
purpose, is to take heavy but soft textured wrapping 
paper, moisten it and push into such similitude of 
moving drapery as you can, and then leave it to 



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DRAPERY 



dry. It will be necessary to tack it in places, either 
to a board or on the wall. In a model of this sort, 
it is best, rather than copy the creases of the paper 
exactly, to take only hints and suggestions and such 
lines and effects as are best adapted for the draw- 
ing. The details from engravings by Diirer shown 



A HELP IN THE STUDY OF DRAPERY. 
A nxiililr moddled tUtuettc, mnd the umt draped with ■ coitm mm 



in this chapter look very much as if they had been 
drawn with the help of some such expedient as this. 
For the more serious study of drapery, sculptors 
sometimes rough out a small figure in clay which 
they clothe with some thin material (cheese-cloth is 
good), moistened with clay water or dipped in a 
thin solution of plaster. The material while still 
moist is manipulated or pushed around until it is 
disposed to suit the plastic requirements, ^ove- 



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204 PRACTICAL DRAWING 

tnent can be suggested in this clay or plaster-tem- 
pered material by blowing on it while it is still moist. 
As a matter of course, more or less skill is needed 
in carrying out these little expedients just men- 
tioned. A feeling for the decorative is required in 
fixing folds and creases in easy Bowing lines and 
to make them fall in harmoniously proportioned 
masses. 

For the artist with an originality of conception 
or the faculty of giving his work a whimsical turn 
there is no department of practical art that affords 
more scope for the exercise of his talents than that 
of designing stage or fancy dress costumes. Espe- 
cially is this so in the planning of the multicolored 
apparel for spectacular entertainments. 

Sketches for the dressing of a classical play or 
a tragedy of some stated historical period require 
serious and diligent research for correct details of 
the costumes of the respective period. For this kind 
of work the artist, besides consulting the recognized 
authoritative books on costume, such as Racinet, 
Hottenroth, Kretschmer, and Hope's "Costumes of 
the Ancients, " can find a great deal of material by 
going over old engravings and in studying the de- 
tails of early paintings. 

In designing classical costumes or fancy dress in 
a quasi-classical manner, nothing could be better 



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than going direct to the Greek painted vases and 
Tanagra figurines in art museums. A study of the 
vase painting will repay you> not only on account 
of the knowledge which you will acquire in regard 
to the ancient dress, but also in teaching you to 



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2o6 PRACTICAL DRAWING 

appreciate the straightforwardness of the Une work 
in these pictures. The Tanagra figurines make 
clear exactly how the large mantles enveloped the 
figure. 

In designing fancy dress of a spectacular or an 
extravagant order, the artist's imagination is al- 



lowed full play. Besides getting his details from 
any period or style he pleases, he can find motives 
in peculiar natural forms — shells, flowers, and leaves, 
for example. And, as for color combinations, what 
more inspiring hints could be asked than those 
contained in the coloration of the plant and animal 
Hfe of the sea, and in feathers, minerals, and 
crystals ? 

The sameness and want of variety of the figure 
poses in costume designers' sketches is a conven- 
tionality which cannot very well be helped, as the 



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DETAIL FROM 
ENGRAVING bY 
MARTIN 
3CH0NGAUER. 




M * S 



figures must be drawn in such a way as best shows 
the merits and details of their designs. 

Costume sketches are usually made in wateiv 
color — either transparent, body-color, or a com- 



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2o8 PRACTICAL DRAWING 

bination of the two. In addition there are a few 
little devices that can be employed in producing 
striking and sparkling sketches. They are as follows: 

Thick white paint (Albanine is good) for lace and 
fluiFy effects. Put it on in relief in rows of dots, or 
spatter it. 

Gum-water, or, as it is sometimes called, water- 
color varnish. Paint it in to brighten parts of the 
design and to add richness to materials Hke velvet 
and silk. 

Iridescent flitter, a powder of minute pieces of 
colored metallic foil. Paint gum-water where you 
want the play of metallic colors, and then dust the 
flitter over the place. Good to show brocade and 
the glitter of colored spangles. 

Frosting, or minute particles of niica. Also to be 
powdered over gum-water, for silver tinsel and 
spangles. 

Bronze paints of gold and silver to indicate jew- 
elry. It should be put on thick, somewhat in relief. 
The showiness of bijouterie can be emphasized by 
painting the bronze on a raised or embossed founda- 
tion. The raised gilding as done by illuminators is 
worked out by painting the letters in a thick compo- 
sition of pipe clay and plaster with gum-water. This 
foundation when dry is sized and covered with gold- 
leaf. One can imitate this effect by making the 
raised foundation with a thick white paint to which a 



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DRAPERY 



209 



little gum-water has been added, then covering with 
an ordinary bronze paint. Gold or silver powders 
can also be made to adhere with gum-water. 



abcut 1S5S ^^'■■■~- 




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CONCERNING MATERIALS FOR, AND 
OTHER MATTERS ABOUT, DRAWING 



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214 



PRACTICAL DRAWING 



steady and hard to budge. The top, which can be 
slanted at any desired angle, makes an excellent 

Z>r&wqg-Board6 /^ pjain pi^^ uWe 

^"■d ) J Rest board on kiue* 

Ta-bles / X • *^. °^5' "^ 




surface for those who Uke to work on a piece of 
cardboard or paper that they do not wish to fasten 
down with thumb-tacks. (Do not destroy the 
surface of the top by sticking tacks into it.) Some 
artists tind that an ordinary unpainted kitchen 
table is good enough for their purposes. This they 
use in connection with a drawing-board which they 



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CONCERNING MATERIALS 215 

rest on their knees and lean against the edge of 
the table. The table-top is used to keep ink, pencils, 
and other materials. A sort of desk slant can be 
improvised by propping up the board with a block 
of wood. 

Light. — ^Not many are so fortunate as to have a 
workroom with a studio skylight, but must content 
themselves with one lighted by an ordinary window. 
They can make, nevertheless, a room of this sort do 
by fixing the shades and curtains so that it is pos- 
sible to control the way the hght falls. The usual 
custom of furnishing a window is to put a spring- 
roller shade at the top, keeping it pulled part way 
down and so shutting out the hght from above and 
allowing it to enter only from below. That is a 
fashion not well adapted for the artist's require- 
ments; it makes a poor light for drawing. For art 
work, light should fall from above, and the spring- 
roller shade should be placed, if anywhere, at the 
bottom. The average window should be screened a 
little at the bottom, as hght rays coming from below 
cause a tiring glare in the eyes. A screen or small 
curtain if stretched across the lower part of a window 
should be of a dark material; a deep shade of green 
is good and restful to the eyes. The height of this 
curtain depends on the position of your drawing- 
table. If a roller shade is used, the height can be 
regulated by an arrangement of cord and pulleys. 



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2i6 PRACTICAL DRAWING 

If possible, work in a room with the window ex- 
posed to the northj but if you haven't any choice 
about the matter and the sun shines into the room, 
the window must be curtained with a thin white 
material. A good scheme by which you can get 
protection from the sun's rays and at the same time 
allow air to enter the room — an important matter 
in a sunny room in summer — is to cut off the glare 
with a screen made by covering a wooden frame 
with a very thin stuff Uke cheese-cloth. This frame 
should be wide enough to fit inside of the window- 
jambs and just a little bit short of the height of the 
window. Rest the frame on the ledge, slant it in; 
ward and hold it in place by a cord that runs over 
pulleys to a fastening hook. The degree of the slant 
at which the frame should be kept depends upon 
the way the sunlight falls and the effect on the 
drawing-table. This arrangement permits air to 
enter over the top of the frame and at the same time 
gives protection from the glaring sunlight. 

Studio tables and such fittings should always be 
so placed with reference to the direction of the light 
that, in falling on the artist's work, it does not throw 
a shadow on that part of the paper where he is 
drawing. In other words, light should come from 
the left. This is important. No one can work well 
if a tiny shadow coming from the pencil is con- 
stantly following the hand around as he works on a 



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CONCERNING MATERIALS 






CVrollcd I 

pulleys ai 
cord- alien 
foTifottilal 



Swing 

9Kade 



drawing. This prescription of course concerns 
right-handed persons only; for the left-handed, 
naturally, things are exactly the other way. 

Mathematical Instrununts. — How many instru- 
ments of this sort the artist needs depends alto- 
gether upon the kind of work he does. Every one 



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218 PRACTICAL DRAWING 

who draws will find occasional use for a good pair 
of compasses. One $}i inches long would be suit- 
able for nearly every purpose. There should be a 
lengthening bar, a pencil point, and a pen point with 
it also. Those who do general lettering and design- 
ing should keep a set of spring-bow instruments on 
their drawing-tables. The bow-pen and bow-pen- 
cil, especially, are indispensable to the letterer. 

Ruling or Drawing Pen. — ^The architect and the 
mechanical draftsman rule their straight ink lines 
with this instrument. Free-hand artists when they 
wish to draw a straight pen Hne usually make an 
ordinary pen do by running it along the back edge 
of a ruler. It would be best if they used a ruling- 
pen, as it makes good, sharp — neither jagged nor 
broken — ink Hnes. Do not dip this pen into the ink, 
but fill it by carrying the ink from the bottle to the 
pen with a small brush or a common writing-pen. 

Triangles, or Set-Squares. — Wooden ones, either 
of a solid piece or of strips mortised at the corners, 
are not apt to keep their shape long. They are 
inexpensive and may do for some work; but a 
better investment would be to purchase those made 
of a transparent amber-Hke composition. This 
transparent quaUty enables you to see better what 
you are doing when marking lines. A 30-60 degree 
triangle and a T-square are used in isometric 
projection. 



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CONCERNING MATERIALS 219 

T-Square. — One of cherry wood about 24 inches 

long with a fixed head is adapted for the usual run 

of work, although a better one with transparent 



Drawing In^irumenis 




edges and a shifting head would be more desirable. 

Pantograph. — A handy little implement that the 

practical worker will sometimes Hnd useful. As a 



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220 PRACTICAL DRAWING 

rule, an idea for a design or an illustration can be 
roughed out better and with more spirit in a small 
compass than on a larger scale. Now, here is where 




the pantograph comes into use in enlarging your little 
experimental sketch. You can make the enlarge- 
ment twice, three times, or as many times bigger as 



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CONCERNING MATERIALS 221 

the construction of the particular pantograph allows. 
A fairly accurate one can be purchased for one dollar. 
Do not get the cheap kind sold as a toy. 

Curves. — Designers must sometimes draw curves 
with firm, unbroken lines. They use, for this, the 



iNee-dfuI SirAig/ii-e-dse-d Tools 
Mahogaixy T- Square 




Pa.raU«l rulerS 



implements called draftsmen's curves. They are 
made of pear-wood, hard rubber, or of a transparent 
composition. These latter are the most helpful, as in 
shifting the implement about in trying to make the 
curve touch certain points you can see better what 
you are doing. Long curves of great nicety can be 
described with the aid of a spline. This instni- 



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222 PRACTICAL DRAWING 

ment is nothing more than a flexible ruler held in 
place by nails and a weight; or instead of a weight 
held to its place by the hand. 

TTiumbs-Tacks or Drawing-Pins. — Use those only 
made out of one piece of metal or the kind with a 

Ways of Drawing Parallel Lines 



sl&nfing 
allel lincit 



firmljr and move the triangle 
altmg with, the ftrrefinger 



Parallel Rulera 



solid brass head that does not allow the pin to break 
through the head and run into your thumb. To 
take out these tacks, use a thumb-tack lifter. It is 
a very good thing to have on the drawing-table, it 
saves not only pocket-knife blades, and scissor edges, 
but sometimes human flnger-nails. 

Erasers. — To take out pencil marks use a soft 
white rubber. If a rubber of this sort gets so soiled 
with pencil dust that it smears the paper, clean it 



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CONCERNING MATERIALS 223 

by a simple washing in soap and water. But be 
sure that it is thoroughly dry before using again. 
In some work, especially crayon, an eraser is wanted 
with a chisel-shaped or pointed end. In this case 
when you cut the rubber, wet the blade of the pen- 
knife — it then cuts very easily. An ink-eraser can 
be used to take out thin ink lines, or to smooth over 
the surface of cardboard that has been roughened 
in scratching off ink with the scraper. Sponge rub- 
bers and very soft white erasers are used in clean- 
ing otF the pencillings from finished pen drawings. 

Reducing-Glass. — ^A lens which gives a greatly 
diminished image of anything viewed through it. 
A useful article. It helps you to see your drawing 
from a different point of view, so to speak. It makes 
noticeable, in wash-drawings, spots or places that are 
"out of keeping." Pen drawings beheld through 
it appear a little bit as they will look when reduced 
in the engraving. Get one of these lenses not less 
than two inches in diameter. It need not be mounted 
with a metal rim and handle. 

In this connection — looking at your work from 
another point of view — it may be well to speak of 
the helpfulness of viewing your work through half- 
closed eyes. It is a good way of judging of its ef- 
fectiveness in the matter of tone and value. 

Blue Pencils. — As blue markings do not show in 
ordinary photography, a blue pencil can be used 



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224 PRACTICAL DRAWING 

to lay out any preparatory work for drawings to be 
reproduced by photoengraving; though the blue 
markings must not be too heavy. The blue pencil 
is the only one to use in making the first draft on 
scratchboard or for drawings in wax or lithographic 
crayons. Save the broken points of this pencil to 
rub up into powder to make blue transfer-paper. 

PaleUg-Knife.^— One with a blade about 3>^ inches 
long is a suitable size for the water-color artist. Use 
it to take the white pigment out of the Httle jars. 
If you keep it on your table for no other purpose 
than this, it is worth while, as dipping a brush into 
a jar of white is not a good habit. It spoils the 
brush and generally discolors the pigment with the 
invariably present black paint in the brush. The 
palette-knife is also good to soften any white paint 
that has hardened on the china slab. 

Lead Pencils. — ^To sharpen a pencil by resting the 
point against the ball of the thumb while cutting 
the wood and lead means that various parts of your 
drawing-paper will be soiled by graphite thumb im- 
pressions. The way to sharpen a pencil is to cut it 
somewhat as one whittles a stick — in knife-blade 
strokes away from you. A lead pencil that cannot 
submit to this treatment without a breaking of the 
lead is not of a good enough grade to be used by 
the artist. In the matter of sharpening lead pencils, 
the requirements are; a good make of pencils, a 



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CONCERNING MATERIALS 



22S 



sharp-bladed knife, and emery or sandpaper lead 
pointers. 

In drawing, every one must decide for himself by 
actual experiment the particular grade of softness 



How io Shsirpen. ^^v^ Pencil 




with a few 
c]ea.n. dexferoaS 
strokes of the pen-knife 
in a direction awa^ from you. 



or hardness best suited to his hand. Some in making 
the first drawing for pen work like a hard pencil; 
others use rather a soft grade. Much depends, too, 
upon the surface of the paper. Very soft pencilHngs 
on a coarse-grained paper are easily smeared. The 
soft grades of pencils are generally preferred in free- 
hand sketching from nature. Some of them, the 
very softest, are made with extra thick leads and 



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226 PRACTICAL DRAWING 

of a grade of graphite that is free from grit, giving 
smooth shadings of an even texture. 

Pencil drawings can be reproduced by the photo- 
engraving process if made on a more or less uniformly 
grained paper and care taken that the pencilling 
does not get blurred. 

Drawing-Pencils. — ^These are of various degrees of 
softness and hardness. 

HHHHHH, HHHH, HHH.— Very hard, used in 
mechanical drawing. The hardest grade can be 
used as a stylus to trace, with an interposing sheet 
of transfer-paper, a rough sketch to a fresh piece of 
paper. 

HH, H. — For mechanical drawing and design- 
ing. In wash work, where sharp outlines are re- 
quired, to mark these outlines more distinctly just 
before sponging off the paper. 

F, HB. — Medium degrees, with leads of a firm 
texture. Both are much used in general designing 
and drafting. Good on either rough or smooth 
surfaces. 

B, BB. — Sketching-pencils. These B-grade pen- 
cils are made with soft leads that easily smudge, 
especially if the paper is coarse. 

BBB, BBBB, BBBBBB.— The leads in these 
pencils are extra thick, they can be sharpened to 
chisel points. Leads pointed in this form give the 
right touch for foliage and general landscape sketch- 



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CONCERNING MATERIALS 227 

ing. The very softest are best reserved for finishing 
strokes of deep rich blacks. 

Transfer-Paper. — In work where great care is 
required in finishing, it is an advantageous method 
to first rough out the drawing on manila paper and 
then transfer it to the proper kind of paper or card- 
board. The usual way of doing this is to place the 
transfer-paper between the manila paper and the 
other surface and go over the outlines of the first 
drawing with a stylus. The transfer-paper has, of 
course, been laid with the graphite-covered side 
down against the paper or cardboard, so that the 
hard pressure on the stylus point marks the outline 
of the drawing. Transfer-paper can be made by 
spreading the powder ground up from a pencil lead 
very evenly over thin paper. The dust from the 
emery pencil-lead pointer can be used for this pur- 
pose. Blue transfer-paper is adapted for pen work 
and for tracing drawings on the stipple-boards. To 
make this kind of transfer-paper use the points' of 
the ever-breaking blue pencils. Typewriter's carbon 
paper had best not be used; it is slightly greasy and 
the marks from it are not easily erased. 

Shields. — It is the custom in newspaper illustrat- 
ing to put some sort of a decorative border or frame 
around half-tone portraits or views. In making 
these frames and the "layouts" for a group of sub- 
jects, the artist has recourse to variously shaped 



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228 PRACTICAL DRAWING 

fonns like shields, circles, and ellipses as well as 
simple square or rectangular frames. When the 
occasion arises to draw such designs it is a good 
plan to cut a tracing pattern with the scissors out 
of a piece of stout paper. This is used in getting a 
sharp outline of the desired shape by running a 
pencil point along the edge of the pattern when it 
is laid against the surface of the drawing-paper. 
In equal-sided shapes, Hke shields, the two sides are 
cut uniformly by doubling the paper. Irregular- 
shaped patterns can also be made with the scissors, 
as curves of great nicety can be dexterously cut 
that way. 

Spatterwork. — Decorative patterns, backgrounds, 
textures, and occasionally parts of the foregound and 
rocks in landscape pen drawings can be put in with 
spatterwork. This is effected by spattering a uni- 
form tint of minute blotches of ink over the sur- 
face of the paper. The variations in the strength of 
the tint are produced by the amount of spattering 
done, and also by the sizes of the blotches. This 
latter point somewhat depends on the mode of doing 
it or the kind of implements used. The simplest 
way of doing spatterwork is to hold a tooth-brush 
charged with ink over that part of the paper to be 
covered, and then run a metal point across the ends 
of the bristles. This operation causes a little rain of 
ink to fall on the paper. Run the metal point across 



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CONCERNING MATERIALS 229 

quickly. The edge of a thin knife-blade or the point 
of a pair of dividers will do. With a little practice 
you will soon be able to get even tints. As there 
must always be the right amount of ink on the brush, 
try the operation on another piece of paper before 
attempting it over 3 drawing. Parts of the drawing 



not to be covered are protected with stencils or masks 
cut out of heavy tracing-paper or any thin but 
impervious paper. Ciit the stencils with the sharp 
point of a penknife — not the scissors. This grain- 
like tint can also be produced by running an old 
stubby bristle brush filled with ink across the meshes 
of some wire netting. This wire netting should be 
about seven inches square and the wires about 
three-eighths of an inch apart. The height at which 



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230 PRACTICAL DRAWING 

this piece of netting is held over the paper deter- 
mines the size of the dots and the intensity of the 
tint. Be sure and see that the ink of the spatter is 
perfectly dry before the stencil is lifted from the 
paper. Spots of ink that have gone over the in- 
tended limits can be painted out with white. It is 
possible to produce a white spatter by splashing a 
white pigment over a black ground. 

Pen-and-ink Drawings over Photographs. — In the 
early days of newspaper illustrating most of the 
portraits and news pictures were made by this 
method. Half-tone reproductions from photographs 
were not then used. Instead, pen drawings were 
made over photographs and the photographic pic- 
tures bleached out leaving the pen drawing only — 
in water-proof ink — on the clear white paper. 

Here is the process in detail: Given a photo- 
graphic copy, say a portrait, an enlarged photograph 
is made on plain sensitized paper that has neither 
gloss, thick coating, nor lustre. The drawing is 
made over this in water-proof ink, the artist using 
his own taste and judgment in the pen work. This 
drawing when finished and the ink thoroughly dry 
is placed in a tray of bleaching fluid which destroys 
the photographic image only. When this has com- 
pletely faded out, the drawing is removed from the 
bleach and washed in running water. 

Further details: The bleaching fluid is composed 



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CONCERNING MATERIALS 231 

of corrosive sublimate (a poison) and alcohol. Use 
as much of the chemical as the given quantity 
of alcohol will dissolve. A solution of this chemical 
with water will also bleach, but not so quickly nor 
so well. If no tray is handy a pellet of absorbent 
cotton soaked with the solution can be swabbed over 
the print until It is bleached. Care must be exer- 
cised in using this chemical, especially with cut 
fingers — keep the fingers out of the solution. Wash 
the bleached print thoroughly in water. It can be 
mounted on heavy cardboard either before or after 
working on it with ink. 

Amateur photographers who are accustomed to 
handling the chemicals of the art, and who possess a 
camera with a very long bellows, one that will enlarge 
and that takes plates not smaller than S by 7 inches, 
can make their own "silver prints," as these photo- 
graphs are called. In making negatives from draw- 
ings or any other kind of flat copy it is best to get 
the special process or slow commercial plates, as 
they make in such work better negatives than the 
common snap-shot dry plates. Prepare the silver 
print paper in this way; First, salted paper is needed. 
This can be procured at most photographer's supply 
houses. But a paper can be prepared by taking a 
good quality of Hnen or a smooth drawing-paper 
and running it through a trayful of water in which 
a pinch, or so, of ordinary table salt has been dis- 



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232 PRACTICAL DRAWING 

solved. The whole paper must be immersed. Hang 
it up to dry, Before going on with the next step of 
coating it with the sensitizing solution. This is 
made by taking: 

Silver nitrate crystals Km. 

Citric acid }ioz. 

Distilled water 2 oz. 

The solution made of the above ingredients is 
now used to covet the salted paper on one side only. 
It must be done in a weak artificial light. Pour a 
small quantity of the solution in a tray and carry 
it to the paper with a swab made of a pellet of ab- 
sorbent cotton tied to a stick that is to serve as a 
handle. Go over the paper, which has been laid 
down on a board or table top, several times with a 
swabful of the solution. Be sure to get it com- 
pletely covering every part. It might do to hang it 
up to dry and then go over it again. Wooden clips 
should be used to suspend the paper, and brushes 
with metal ferrules should not be used for the solu- 
tion. Do not get any of this nitrate of silver mixture 
on your fingers as it will stain them brown. It is a 
good plan, before starting to put it on, to mark the 
space to be covered and leave wide margins by which 
the paper can be handled so that it is not necessary 
to touch any part where the solution is applied. 
Scribble lines with a pencil on the back of the salted 



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CONCERNING MATERIALS 233 

paper so as to see the side not to be coated with the 
silver solution. It is advisable that the photographic 
prints made from this sensitized paper, in the usual 
way from negatives, be rinsed slightly in plain water. 
And as they fade rapidly in daylight they must have 
the portions on which you are not working covered 
up. It would not be necessary to cover them up if 
you were working on them by artificial light, as they 
do not fade so fast under such a light. The prints 
can be fixed, so that they do not fade, in a plain hypo 
bath; although in this case they sometimes do not 
bleach so well. Ordinarily, it is perhaps best to have 
a commercial photographer make these enlarged 
silver-prints, and also have him bleach out the pho- 
tographic image when the drawing is finished. 

The method of making drawings over photo- 
graphs in water-proof ink can also be put into prac- 
tice with bromide enlargements from small nega- 
tives. The image is taken out, after the drawing 
is finished, with a bath made by mixing a solution 
of potassium bromide and water with one of cop- 
per sulphate and water. After the print has been 
bleached it is immersed in a plain hypo bath and then 
thoroughly washed in water. The bromide enlarge- 
ment had best not be printed too dark. The photc^- 
rapher who makes the enlargement can also be 
called upon to do the bleaching-out process. 

Blue-prints as well can be drawn over with ink 



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234 PRACTICAL DRAWING 

to produce drawings for the photoengraver. If not 
too deeply printed they need not be bleached, as 
faint blue does not interfere with photographing. 
Blue-prints can, however, be faded with weak am- 
monia water, or a solution of washing-soda (sodium 
carbonate) and lye (caustic potash). These solu- 
tions, though, are likely to weaken or make the ink 
run. 

The most convenient and surest of the aforesaid 
methods in the application of photography to draw- 
ing is that of using plain silver-prints. 

Retoticking Photographs for Photoftigraving. — As an 
original for reproduction by the half-tone process, 
nothing pleases the workman better than a good 
sharp photograph. But not all photographs fulfil 
the requirements demanded by the engraver and 
must be gone over by an artist in water-color to 
bring out details or get more contrast. For this 
purpose he uses either sepia or black with white and 
any other needed pigments to match the tints of the 
photographs as closely as possible. 

A half-tone cut made with the finest screen from 
a good copy will come out, if the printing is carefully 
executed, as near Hke the original photograph as 
can be reasonably expected. A perfect photograph 
should not be retouched by the artist at all. Some- 
times an indistinct photographic print will take 
nearly as much time in retouching as would be 



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CONCERNING MATERIALS 235 

required in redrawing the whole thing. The coarser 
the screen of the half-tone the bolder can be the 
artist's brush strokes. But in all cases the nearer 
the retouched photograph resembles a good one the 
better it will be as a copy for the engraver. 

Retouching photographs comes under two heads; 
namely, (1) free-hand and (2) air-brush work. 
This latter method, used in retouching machineiy 
and in "commercial art," has developed into a 
special profession exacting considerable skill and 
an adaptability for very accurate workmanship. 
This sort of retouching is done with a hollow nee- 
dle-like implement which spreads, by the aid of 
compressed air, an even tint of color over the pho- 
tographic surface. The strength of the tint is reg- 
ulated by various mechanical attachments on the 
implement. The cuts in the catalogues of merchan- 
dise and machinery that were formerly made by 
the slow and expensive way of engraving on wood 
by hand have now been mostly replaced by the 
quicker method of making half-tones from retouched 
photographs. 

Free-hand retouching is that branch of the art 
in which photographs are prepared for illustra- 
tions in newspapers and periodicals. It requires 
a certain cleverness in getting effects and contrasts 
rather than the patient skill needed in the precise 
and careful mechanical air-brush retouching. This 



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236 PRACTICAL DRAWING 

implement, though, is often used in free-hand work 
to put in a flat or a graduated tint as a background. 

It is necessary, in both methods, that the surface 
of the photc^raphs be prepared for the reception of 
the water-color washes. Painting over some photo- 
graphs — those with a sort of "mat" surface — is 
almost as easy as working on the usual drawing- 
paper; but the shiny-coated surface of the average 
camera picture interferes with the free handling 
and flowing of washes. 

There are several ways of preparing photographic 
surfaces for retouching. Here are two: (i) Liquid 
ox-gall is washed over the print and a few drops put 
in the water cup. Ox-gall paste can be used. (2) 
Take a moist rag or pellet of cotton and rub it over 
a piece of common sheet gelatine; then, when the rag 
or cotton is chained with a little of the gelatine, rub 
it over the photograph as if cleaning it. From time 
to time, during the course of putting on the pigments, 
work the brush over the gelatine. Instead of the 
above, gelatine solutions can be procured in the art 
shops. 

As for pigments: Of most consequence is that of 
always employing the specially prepared process 
whites, as Chinese white cannot be depended upon 
to show invariably as white when photographed. It 
had best not be used. There are a number of makes 
of special whites for retouching put up in convenient 



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CONCERNING MATERIALS 237 

little jars which are to be procured in art supply 
shops. Of the other pigments, sepia and lamp- 
black are principally used. In addition, of course, 
there are the dark reds and browns to mix with the 
basic pigments of white, sepia, and black, which are 
employed to more nearly match the varying tones 
of the different kinds of photographic prints. Mad- 
der brown, especially, is good in approximating the 
maroon of some photographic tones. 

When an air-brush tint is to be sprayed over a 
background, where a simple subject is in strong 
silhouette, a tracing-paper stencil is cut out to serve 
as a mask to protect that part not to be covered 
with the tint. And where a picture is full of intricate 
detail that is to be left untouched by the air-brush . 
tint, a protecting him of rubber varnish is painted 
over this detail before spraying on the tint. After 
the air-brush tint has been put on, the protecting 
film can be peeled off by rubbing it with the finger- 
tip. 

Other suggestions for retouching are the following: 

Use the special-process whites. 

Match the tints of the photographs as exactly as 



Dark parts of the picture to be broken up with 
details in lighter tones; not too harsh a contrast, 
however. 

Light portions need detail, but carefully put in. 



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238 PRACTICAL DRAWING 

Dark retouching on a lighter ground often shows 
rather conspicuously in the completed half-tone. 

Guard against the bluish tinge of grays obtained 
by the mixing of white and black. The sensitive 
photographic plate does not reproduce the tints as 
they appear to our eyes. Particularly where these 
grays are contrasted with a brownish or reddish tone 
in a print, the resultant effect is altt^ether different 
from what you thought it would be. To obviate 
this blue cast in a gray mixture add a little bit of 
one of the brown pigments. 

And Bnally: Put light against dark and dark 
against light — the coarser the screen, the stronger 
the contrast can be, and the Hner the screen so much 
greater the care and attention needed in approximat- 
ing the effect of a photograph. 

Bromide enlargements are also available for the 
production of originals for the half-tone engraver. 
In working over them it is more a matter of draw- 
ing than of retouching, as the pigments are put on 
very thickly and the photographic image completely 
covered. 

Lithographic Crayons. — ^These crayons of a wax- 
like texture are employed by illustrators in various 
ways. Drawings made with them on roughly grained 
paper or on a kid-finish cardboard can be reproduced 
by line>engraving. Firm Hnes and solid blacks are 
put in with ink — a pen or a brush being used. This 



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CONCERNING MATERIALS 239 

crayon can also be used alone or in combination 
with the pen on silver-prints. As the lithographic 
crayons are only about two inches long, it is neces- 
sary to fix them in a crayon-holder. The paper- 
covered pencils sold by stationers have a texture 
somewhat like that of lithographic crayons. Both 
kinds, the crayons and pencils, are used in drawing 
on reHef tinted boards. 

Scraper Boards, Ross Boards, Enamel Boards. — In 
practical illustrating and designing, these boards are 
much used. They are covered with a thick clayey 
enamel. Some have ink lines or dots printed on 
them. The idea of the enamelled surface is that 
changes can be made by scratching out or modifying 
any ink markings drawn on it. Again, if a solid 
black ground has been painted in, white lines or 
spots can be scratched out. There are many kinds 
of these boards which, in addition to the enamel 
and the tints printed on them, are impressed or 
embossed with a pattern in relief. S.ome kinds have 
the impressed pattern, the printed tint, and the 
enamel surface. These impressed and tinted boards 
are commonly known as Ross relief boards. In 
England and France there is a make of Hned scraper 
boards known under the name of Gillot. On one 
kind of relief board with a printed tint a drawing 
can be made which when engraved gives a fair 
imitation of a half-tone. Other varieties have stip- 



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240 PRACTICAL DRAWING 

pled surfaces in relief, much favored by newspaper 
artists for drawing portraits. The general method 
pursued in making these is to have an enlarged un- 



ROSS-BOARD SURFACES. 



mounted photograph made, the back of which is 
covered with blue-pencit dust so as to make a trans- 
ferring surface. The photograph so prepared is laid 



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CONCERNING MATERIALS 241 

over the stipple scratchboard and fixed firmly with 
thumb-tacks. Then with a stylus or a hard pencil, 
the details are traced through. Care must be taken 
not to bear too hard on the tracing point so as not 
to destroy the surface of the board. After tracing, 
if any further drawing is necessary, it must be done 
with the blue pencil. 

General instructions in working on these boards 
are: 

Preliminary outlines and drawing should be made 
with a blue pencil. 

Or, make a first drawing or outline on thin paper 
and then trace it with an ivory point or stylus by 
interposing a sheet of blue transferring-paper or by 
rubbing blue on the back of the thin paper. 

Lithographic crayons, of which there are three 
standard degrees of texture, are used in making 
the drawings. Lead-pencil marks on these boards 
reproduce also; there is danger, though, of such 
lines smudging. 

Ink lines, if any are intended, should be put in at 
first, as the greasy quality of the crayon hinders the 
free working of the pen. As these boards do not 
allow of much reduction, pen strokes must be fine 
and delicate. 

To take out whites, use an ink-scraper with a 
broad blade for lai^e areas and the point of a pen- 
knife blade for the details. The edges of these in- 



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242 PRACTICAL DRAWING 

struments should be sharp. Fine Hnes are scratched 
out with an etcher's needle or the point of a pair of 
dividers. 

Photoengraving. — Illustrations are for the most 
part reproduced by either line-engraving or by the 
half-tone process. These are the common photo- 
mechanical methods of making relief engravings for 
use in the ordinary or type printing-press. An 
efficient intaglio process that permits of speed in 
the printing is now employed in reproducing pic- 
tures and photographs. The artist, as a rule, does 
not have to trouble himself with the mechanical 
details of these processes. He has only, for Une- 
engraving, to see to it that the ink in his drawings 
is intensely black and the paper white, and for half- 
tone to make the most effective sketch within the 
scope of his artistic ability and technical skill. 

The engravers prefer, in marking sizes on draw- 
ings, to state it in inches and fractions of inches and 
not "one-third size," or "three-quarters the size" 
or perhaps still more puzzling, "one-third off." 

The particular quality of a half-tone engraving — 
the rows of dots of varying strength and the network 
of lines in the shadows — is effected by a half-tone 
screen used during the procedure of photographing the 
original copy. This screen consists of a sheet of 
glass ruled with a mesh of fine Hnes. 

The degree of coarseness and fineness of a half- 



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DRAWN WITH UTHOGRAFHIC CRAYDN ON UNED ROSS BOARD. 



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244 PRACTICAL DRAWING 

tone depends on the kind of screen used. En- 
gravings made with a 65-line screen are intended for 
quick printing with all the material of the cheapest 
quality. Screens of 120 and 133 lines are those 
commonly employed in making plates for general 
printing; whereas the fine screen of a mesh of 175 
lines is that used for careful printing with good ink 
and on good paper. In case an artist has to super- 
vise the making of any half-tone engravings, he 
should first ascertain all facts in connection with 
the printing so as to know what kind of a half-tone 
screen to order. 

Pencil or pen drawings can both be engraved by 
half-tone. Silhouette drawings also can be en- 
graved by this process; the solid black of the draw- 
ing instead of coming out that way — solid black — is 
cut up by the meshes of the screen into an even gray 
tone. The quality of this tone depends on the screen 
used. 

It is customary to make drawings — ^wash, pen, or 
color — for reproduction larger than the size of the 
plate. A careful drawing, though, made in any of 
the above ways can be engraved the same size. 
Artists who can make pen drawings in fine, firm, 
yet delicate lines need make their sketches but a 
trifle larger than the intended cut size. But most 
artists would rather work larger and make drawings 
three, four, or even more times larger than the plate 



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CONCERNING MATERIALS 245 

is to be. The size of any drawing, considered rela- 
tively to the size when reduced, depends somewhat 
on the individual manner and technique of the drafts- 
man. It is suggested, however, that a drawing be 
made at least twice the size, Unearly measured. 



■J LINED SCRAPER 



Ben-Day Tints. — Flat, even tints are sometimes 
put in engravings or drawings by a machine invented 
by Mr. Benjamin Day. These tints are known as 
Ben-Day tints. The essential part of this machine 
is a sheet or film of a transparent substance that 
has one side impressed with a pattern. This film is 
fixed in a frame. The impressed pattern on the film 
is in relief like an engraving. There is a divers 



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246 PRACTICAL DRAWING 

assortment of these patterns; Heavy and delicate 
lined or dotted tints; stipples of ditFerent kinds; 
grained effects ; and ornamental combinations of 
lines. After the pattern side of the transparent film 
has been gone over with a printers' roller charged 
with ink, it is placed, reUef side down, over a draw- 
ing or plate. Then a burnisher is passed, with just 
the right amount of pressure, back and forth, across 
the film over that part of the drawing or plate that 
is intended to be tinted. This leaves an impression ■ 
of the tint on the surface. It is usual when an artist 
wants any particular part of a drawing tinted, to 
indicate where it is to go by marking that part with 
blue. A light tone shaded in with a blue pencil 
will do. 

A few of the engravings* in this book show tints 
put in with this method. 

Drawing-Papers. — In getting ready for any water- 
color work, the first thing an artist thinks of in the 
matter of a surface on which to paint, is a sheet of 
Whatman's paper. This is perfectly natural, for 
this particular name has been used to designate a 
standard make of drawing-paper for many years. 
But there are many other good papers and surfaces 
for drawing and painting which the artist will find 
at artist's supply shops. Among those that he can 
ask for are: Steinbach, Strathmore paper and boards, 

• Pages 30, JJ, u6, lOi, 217. 



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CONCERNING MATERIALS 247 

illustration boards, German white and eggshell 
surface drawing-papers. It is well to remember that 
the very rough-grained water-color papers are not 
adapted, for drawings that are intended for repro- 
duction. Various kinds of tinted papers can ad- 
vantageously be used in monochrome. Where the na- 



DRAWN WITH INK ON LINED SCRAPER B 



ture of the artist's work requires much preliminary 
sketching and detailing it is an economical course 
to get a roll of manila or detail paper. By making 
sketches on this kind of a surface first, it is a simple 
matter then to transfer the outlines to the proper 
cardboard or paper. 

Stretching a Sheet of Paper. — Drawing-paper 
pasted on heavy cardboard, coming so prepared 



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248 PRACTICAL DRAWING 

under the name of illustration board, ts the most 
convenient and time-saving article which the artist 
can select for wash-drawing. But sometimes you 
want a certain kind of paper or one of a particular 
tint. In this case you will be under the necessity 
of either working on plain paper or on a sheet pasted 
and strained on a drawing-board. To do this — 
straining or stretching a piece of paper on a board — 
go about it in this way: 

(i) The board should be a trifle larger than the 
paper. Have a brush and some good strong paste 
ready. 

(2) Place the paper, face up, on the board, and 
bend up a margin of two inches all around. 

(3) Now turn over the paper and moisten the 
back. Use a soft sponge. 

(4) Turn it over again and sponge the face of the 
paper. Get it uniformly moist and allow no pools 
of water to gather. 

(5) Now see that the paper is placed on the board 
where you want it and quickly put paste on the 
margins. The reason for having bent up the margins 
will now be understood — it was to keep the edges 
as dry as possible so that there would be no moisture 
on these edges to weaken the paste. 

(6) Next press down two opposite margins. Do 
this with the palms of the hands, in pressing the 
pasted portions firmly to the paper and pulling it 



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CONCERNING MATERIALS 249 

very slightly — but not too much. The other two 
margins are next to be pressed down in the same way. 

(7) Before setting it aside to dry, go all around 
the edges and see that the paste is holding. Do not 
attempt to hurry the drying by artificial heat. It is 
best, at first, to keep the board and all flat and not 
set it up vertically, as the water will run down, 
cause the top to dry quicker and possibly wrinkle 
the paper or pull it off. When the paper has lost 
most of its moisture — not necessarily all — the board 
may be set up on an edge until the paper is com- 
pletely dry. 

The artist, if he wishes, can make, with some 
special paper that he fancies, his own illustration 
board by mounting it on heavy cardboard or book- 
binder's board. The procedure to be followed would 
be about the same as in mounting photographs, 
using a rubber-covered roller to push out any air 
bubbles that may form. Before pasting the paper, 
it must be moistened throughout, and surplus water 
taken off with a sponge or clean blotting-paper. 
To counteract the tendency to warp, paste a sheet 
of ordinaiy paper on the back. Keep under a weight 
until dry. 

Tracing-paper. — If the nature of your work is of a 
practical kind, you will no doubt use up lots of 
tracing-paper. The most economical way for you to 
do, then, is to get it by the roll. Fix this on the wall 



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2SO PRACTICAL DRAWING 

on little brackets, much as a shade roller is hung, so 
that the paper can be easily unrolled as it is needed. 
Getting it in flat sheets is not a good plan, as the 
sheets get rumpled, crinkled, and torn. Get a paper 
of a bluish tinge or a pure white, as these can be used 
in outline pen-and-ink drawings by laying the paper 
over an elaborately worked-out pencil sketch, and 
then drawing only those lines in ink that will tell the 
picture story graphically. 

Here is another use to which tracing-paper can 
be put: Sometimes an artist wants a sketch of a 
right hand. Now, if he draws his left hand on a 
piece of tracing-paper, all he needs to do to see what 
a right hand looks Uke is to turn the paper over. 



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